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An evidence describes the source of an annotation, e.g. On tropical reefs, sponge diversity and abundance can be higher than that of corals (Diaz and Rützler 2001). These specimens may be over 100 years old, as the sponges grow only about 1.5 cm a year. 2000). Individuals were grouped based on a combination of mtDNA, nDNA and the geographic origin of the sample. Emily C. McGrath, Lisa Woods, Jamaluddin Jompa, Abdul Haris, James J. This project will include comparisons of growth and reproductive output of several species in each class. This pattern may, however, be found in other tropical marine species, especially those with a long evolutionary history such as other globally distributed sponge groups. Haplotype C5A2 was found in the central Indo-Pacific, but also in the tropical Atlantic. Our second aim was to test whether the giant barrel sponges in the tropical Atlantic and the Indo-Pacific represent two monophyletic lineages. Giant Barrel Sponge. 2005; McMurray et al. The family is Petrosiidae. Eine bekannte Sehenswürdigkeit in der Nähe ist in Obri Sud das Restaurant mit dem Riesenfass. Economic Importance. In the early Miocene, the African-Arabian Plate moved northwards to adjoin the Eurasian Plate (Aitchison et al. Sympatric populations of X. testudinaria and X. bergquistia spawn at different times of the year near Australia, possibly triggered by water temperature (Fromont and Bergquist 1994). 2013). Some of the previously assumed ‘morphological plasticity’ of giant barrel sponges might actually be morphological differentiation between species. 2013; Bell et al. Of particular interest is the finding that lineages in a given ocean basin were more closely related to lineages in another ocean basin than to lineages with which they co-occur. Joseph Henry Press, Washington, USA, pp 83–108, Reece JS, Bowen BW, Larson A (2011) Long larval duration in moray eels (Muraenidae) ensures ocean-wide connectivity despite differences in adult niche breadth. The giant barrel sponge, as the name suggests, is soft and barrel-shaped with a wall that can be up to 2.5 … Development 11. It is typically brownish-red to brownish-gray in color, with a hard or stony texture. We made separate statistical parsimony networks for the combined mtDNA sequences (CO1 + ATP6) and the nDNA sequences with TCS v 1.21 (Clement et al. We obtained a total of 395 combined sequences of partial mitochondrial CO1 and ATP6 genes. Usually, there is a general conformity between phylogeography and biogeography in marine animal groups, which suggests that geographic isolation is a starting point for divergences between species (Teske et al. Group 8 represented one network, group 3 represented three networks, and the remaining three networks consisted of the combinations of groups 2 and 9, groups 1, 6 and 7, and groups 4 and 5, respectively (ESM S3, S4). Science 321:654–657, Richards VP, Bernard AM, Feldheim KA, Shivji MS (2016) Patterns of population structure and dispersal in the long-lived “redwood” of the coral reef, the giant barrel sponge (Xestospongia muta). Syst Biol 59:307–321, Haq BU, Hardenbol J, Vail PR (1987) Chronology of fluctuating sea levels since the Triassic. Green tropical Atlantic; red western Indian Ocean; yellow Red Sea; blue central Indo-Pacific. Caribbean Journal of Science 29:75–88, Zhan A, Macisaac HJ, Cristescu ME (2010) Invasion genetics of the Ciona intestinalis species complex: from regional endemism to global homogeneity. Values on branches indicate bootstrap support (only shown when >50) and Bayesian support value (only shown when >0.90). It is perhaps the best-studied species of s… Pink and Red Encrusting Sponge. 2001). Coral Reefs 13:119–126, Geller JB, Darling JA, Carlton JT (2010) Genetic perspectives on marine biological invasions. These studies imply that the giant barrel sponge is a classic example of a tropical marine animal in which poor identification at the species level has led to an oversimplified taxonomic classification. Giant kelp grows faster than bamboo. PeerJ 3:e1170, Knowlton N (1993) Sibling species in the sea. Sponge tissue for DNA extraction was immediately stored in absolute ethanol (98%) in a cool box. 2011). S1. All CO1 haplotypes of samples from the tropical Atlantic in this analysis were previously described by López-Legentil and Pawlik (2009) from locations in the north (Florida) and west (Belize) of the tropical Atlantic and by de Bakker et al. 2010). The genetic differences between the nuclear clades are based on the variation of a single gene and the mitochondrial markers have low variation. PubMed Note that not all groups are monophyletic in the nDNA tree.