2010 Jul 5;28(30):4742-50. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2010.04.102. AE, EM, and RA: conceptualization. Consequently, the reasons for vaccine failure and the persistence of disease transmission in Tanzania should be elucidated. Current control of the disease mainly includes isolation and disinfection of the contaminated environment, and administration of a live-attenuated vaccine, which provides a strong immunity. Swai ES, Moshy W, Mbise E, Kaaya J, Bwanga S. (2011). Subsequent isolation of PPRV belonging to lineage II and IV (12, 52) suggest that PPRV may have been imported into the country on more than one occasion (12, 36). A study in 2012 in Tandahimba and Ulanga districts in southern Tanzania found that the outbreaks of PPR reduced the average value of small ruminants by 10%, caused a decrease in flock size, and increased the inputs and risks of small ruminant production (26). Ilukor J. This review assesses current knowledge regarding the epidemiology of PPRV in Tanzania, highlighting the challenges with respect to control and suggesting possible interventions. (2019) 164:2537–43. doi: 10.1007/s11259-014-9618-x, 19. Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a highly contagious, economically important viral disease of sheep and goats with high morbidity and mortality rates. Editorial . A number of vaccines are used to prevent disease in goats. They identified lineage III, with a high genetic identity to PPRVs from Sudan and Ethiopia. Consequently, the methods used to collect data for this review may have resulted in bias in the study locations, and data from certain locations may have been exempted from this study. (2016) 6:1–7. Torsson E, Kgotlele T, Berg M, Mtui-Malamsha N, Swai ES, Wensman JJ, et al. The product consists of one ampule of … NLM (2015) 27:1–9. Please enable it to take advantage of the complete set of features! Mariner JC, Jones BA, Rich KM, Thevasagayam S, Anderson J, Jeggo M, et al. (2010) 9:785–96. A major hinderance to adequate surveillance is the inability of most antibody tests to distinguish between infected and vaccinated animals (91). Front Veterinary Sci. (2019) 66:627–33. Events/activities that bring together flocks/herds from different farms/localities or introduce sick animals to healthy ones have been identified as major risk factors for PPR in Tanzania and Kenya (35). doi: 10.3201/eid2012.140907, 14. Mbyuzi AO, Komba EV, Kimera SI, Kambarage DM. The immunocapture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (IC-ELISA) for the rapid identification of PPRV antigen (46), recommended by OIE (47), was not reported to have been used in any of the reviewed articles. Lineages I and II are mainly found in West and Central Africa; lineage III is found mainly in East Africa, Yemen and Oman; and lineage IV is found across the Arabian Peninsula, the Middle East, southern Asia and recently, in several African territories (10, 13, 14). Arch Virol. PLoS ONE. This is attributable to the high transmissibility and morbidity of PPR (2), which has resulted in its rapid spread in small ruminant populations through large areas of Africa and Asia within the past 20 years (70). While an efficacious vaccine providing protective and lifelong immunity exists, the level of PPR virus transmission in animal populations is unknown. (2018). Sci., 25 November 2020 Agga GE, Raboisson D, Walch L, Alemayu F, Tesfaye D, Bahiru G, et al. Jones BA, Rich KM, Mariner JC, Anderson J, Jeggo M, Thevasagayam S, et al. (60), may have been enough to successfully prevent PPR transmission. (2016) 196:3499–506. (2019) 274:113730. doi: 10.1016/j.jviromet.2019.113730, 96. The OIE recommends pre-vention and control measures including vaccination of high-risk populations along with strict controls on the movement of sheep and goats. (50) reported that female sheep and goats may be at higher risk of PPR than males because they are kept longer on the farms and therefore have a longer risk period for PPRV exposure. Although transmission of the live attenuated PPR vaccine strain in the field cannot be completely ruled out, there is currently no evidence for vaccine strain transmission either in the field or through experimental infection studies . Comparative efficacy of peste des petits ruminants (PPR) vaccines. Dundon WG, Kihu SM, Gitao GC, Bebora LC, John NM, Oyugi JO, et al. Epidemiological survey of peste des petits ruminants in Ethiopia: cattle as potential sentinel for surveillance. 81. 61. The disease is of considerable economic importance in countries such as Tanzania, where small ruminant products are important for sustainable livelihoods. Lyons NA, Jemberu WT, Chaka H, Salt JS, Rushton J. Field-derived estimates of costs for Peste des Petits Ruminants vaccination in Ethiopia. initiative, which aims to advance livestock health and productivity in sub Saharan Africa. Risk factors in Tanzania include age, sex, species, and close contact of animals from different farms/localities. Additionally, phylogenetic analysis based on the N gene has been utilized to determine the PPRV lineage and to establish epidemiological relationships (12, 36, 41, 44). Trop Animal Health Produc. doi: 10.4102/ojvr.v81i2.732. Amarasinghe GK, Ayllón MA, Bào Y, Basler CF, Bavari S, Blasdell KR, et al. (2012). 51. There is need for collaborative efforts to develop interventions to control and eradicate the disease. Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a highly contagious and economically important viral disease affecting goats, sheep and wild ruminants. Poor access to veterinary services was identified as a risk factor for PPR in Tanzania (14), and is the bane of livestock production in most of Africa (79). Front. Economic importance of PPR disease, PPR vaccine and vaccination. Virus Dis. (2018) 37:961–9. Serological tests performed in the reviewed studies were mostly ELISA techniques such as the competitive PPRV specific anti-H monoclonal based ELISA (c-ELISA) as recommended by the OIE (27, 28, 39, 43, 48–50). Two studies described the clinical signs of PPR in Tanzania and suggest that goats were more susceptible to PPR than sheep, with sheep exhibiting a milder form of the disease (14, 35). PPR has since been reported in goats, sheep, and camels in Tanzania (25–28). The disease is currently circulating in Asian and African countries, creating problems in small ruminant farming. About 22% of total household income in Tanzania is from livestock rearing, and ~60% of rural household incomes come from livestock activities (29). Literature searches were conducted in PubMed and Google Scholar. Eradicating the Scourge of Peste Des Petits Ruminants from the World. In addition to mass/blanket vaccination, it is also important to target vaccination and sero-surveillance activities at the borders with other PPR endemic areas/countries, to establish immune belts and prevent importation of outbreaks (86). J Veterinary Sci Technol. J Adv Veterinary Animal Res. At present, there is no official national reference laboratory for PPR in Tanzania, however, the Center for Infectious Diseases and Biologicals (CIDB) of the Tanzania Veterinary Laboratories Agency (TVLA) performs routine testing for PPR and has recently joined a twinning project with OIE Reference Laboratories to improve capacity for PPR diagnosis and expertise (96). The research objective was to develop a thermostable vaccine against peste des petits ruminants (PPR), a morbilliviral disease of small ruminants targeted for eradication that is a major constraint on the livelihoods of the rural poor throughout much of Africa and Asia. AE, RA, EI, and BA: methodology. (1996). 68. Once introduced, the virus can infect up to 90 percent of an animal heard, and the disease kills anywhere from 30 to 70 percent of infected animals. Interventions are required to control and eradicate PPR in Tanzania which may be achieved by the collaboration of stakeholders, including: farmers, the Tanzanian government, international organizations (such as FAO and OIE), researchers, and multinational veterinary pharmaceutical companies. Agriculture is a mainstay of Tanzania's economy, with approximately one fifth of the agriculture-derived economy emanating from the livestock subsector (29, 30). Asil RM, Ludlow M, Ballal A, Alsarraj S, Ali WH, Mohamed BA, et al. Onderstepoort J. Vet Res. (1981) 5:11–4. Onderstepoort J Veterinary Res. 29. 82. Spiegel and Havas (53) suggested that the emergence of PPR in Tanzania in 2008 may have been related to the humanitarian crisis in Kenya in 2007, caused by a highly contested election that led to widespread violence and the displacement of citizens into refugee camps in northern Tanzania. This article investigates the occurrence and distribution of PPR in Tanzania, the circulating strains, risk factors, economic impacts, control and prevention strategies, and challenges to control of PPR. Disease Status And Risk Factors for Peste Des Petits Ruminants Along Tanzania-Burundi and Democratic Republic of Congo Border. PPR control in a Sahelian Setting: what vaccination strategy for Mauritania. Eligible articles were those published about peste des petits ruminants in Tanzania within the last 16 years (2004–2020), published in or translated to the English language. Diagnosis of PPR in Tanzania is mostly by observation of clinical signs and lesions at post mortem. Current control of the disease mainly includes isolation and disinfection of the contaminated environment, and administration of a live-attenuated … Emerg Infect Dis. Hidden Value on the Hoof: Cross-Border Livestock Trade in Eastern Africa. Control by vaccination requires that farmers are aware of the benefits, and that they and their veterinary extension advisors appreciate that frequency of vaccination is related to herd dynamics. Bedore B, Mustefa M, Tamire M, Geinoro T. Current status of occurrence and socio-economic impacts of peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) on small ruminant population in Ethiopia. Mdetele et al. Phylogenetic analysis of isolated PPRV from this investigation identified it as a member of lineage III, the most abundant lineage in eastern Africa (36). J Veterinary Sci Med. PPR or Small Ruminant Plague is a disease of sheep and goat, with a significant impact on the livelihoods and food security of small livestock keepers across the globe, wherein 1.44 billion small ruminants are at risk and on an average 30 million animals are affected annually. doi: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2014.08.031, 64. (2016) 7:1–5. Three lineages (lineage II to IV) of PPRV have been identified in Tanzania, implying at least two separate introductions of the virus. National Center for Biotechnology Information, Unable to load your collection due to an error, Unable to load your delegates due to an error. (2002) 88:153–9. OPP1165393). This is important for proper planning, execution, and evaluation of control programs (86, 91, 92). PPR disease vaccine launched for sheep and goats •The state has launched a countrywide PPR disease drive for goats and sheep. In: The 3rd RUFORUM Biennial Conference, 24th – 28th September 2012. doi: 10.3402/iee.v6.32701, 27. Vet. Vet World. Samples collected for testing included swabs of conjunctival, nasal and oral discharges and ulcers, whole blood, and serum samples for serology (27, 36, 41–43). Namtimba AM. doi: 10.1099/jgv.0.000944. PPR epidemics can be controlled by animal movement control, proper carcass disposal, and vaccine use. Arch Virol. doi: 10.1111/tbed.13116, 54. 35. (2016) 2016:7826245. doi: 10.1155/2016/7826245, 79. This site needs JavaScript to work properly. Parida S, Muniraju M, Altan E, Baazizi R, Raj GD, Mahapatra M. Emergence of PPR and its threat to Europe. (12) identified lineage II and IV from goats in the 2011 PPR outbreak in southern Tanzania (52). The risk factors for PPRV infection were investigated by eight of the eligible studies, using questionnaires and sero-prevalence data. Notulae Scientia Biol. Seroprevalence and genetic characterisation Of Peste Des Petits Ruminants Virus in selected areas of Tanzania. (2020) 26:51. doi: 10.3201/eid2601.181998, 72. Wilson RT. (2001) 33:423–30. doi: 10.3201/eid1912.130973, 25. Transbound Emerg Dis. EI and AO: analysis. (2019) 164:1967–80. Additionally, Mdetele et al. Uncontrolled animal movement, poor vaccination coverage, mixing of herds/flocks from different farms/localities and sick with healthy animals have aided the transmission and persistence of the disease. 4. Res Opin Anim Veterinary Sci. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0149982, 34. Kivaria FM, Kwiatek O, Kapaga AM, Swai ES, Libeau G, Moshy W, et al. PPRV exists as one serotype, but sequence analysis of the nucleoprotein (N) gene and the fusion protein (F) gene has revealed four genetically distinct lineages (10, 12). Studies revealed that PPRV is endemic in sheep and goats in Tanzania, although seropositivity has also been reported in cattle, camels, buffalo, Grant's gazelle, wildebeest and impala, but with no clinical manifestation. This vaccine contains the FC-126 strain of turkey herpesvirus which has been shown to aid in the prevention of Marek’s disease. Agric Econ Res Rev. (1996) 138:187. doi: 10.1136/vr.138.8.187, 4. Similar to other African countries, the impact of PPR on agriculture in Tanzania has wide implications. Veterinary Microbiol. Exp Rev Vac. doi: 10.1007/s11250-014-0747-6, 26. Spatial Multicriteria Evaluation for Mapping the Risk of Occurrence of Peste des Petits Ruminants in Eastern Africa and the Union of the Comoros. Virus Res. (2019) 34:44–53. Herzog CM, de Glanville WA, Willett BJ, Kibona TJ, Cattadori IM, Kapur V, et al. Impact Factor 2.245 | CiteScore 2.6More on impact ›, Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR): Generating Evidence to Support Eradication Efforts 31. (50) observed a decrease in the sero-prevalence of PPR from 49.3% in 2014 to 10.0% in 2015, in a study performed at the wildlife–livestock interface in Ngorongoro district in the northern Arusha region, and Ulanga, Kilombero, and Mvomero districts in the south-eastern Morogoro region. Since the suspected incursion of PPR into Tanzania in 2008, the disease has continued to spread throughout the country, and is now endemic in most regions, despite vaccination campaigns. Recent epidemiology of peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV). Characterisation of Peste Des Petits Ruminants Disease in pastoralist flocks in Ngorongoro District of Northern Tanzania and Bluetongue Virus Co-Infection. (2016) 4:9. doi: 10.13188/2325-4645.1000021, 90. Little PD. Goat and sheep are the species of choice for pastoralists, due to their hardiness and ability to withstand the harsh arid and semi-arid climates. Peste des petits ruminants viruses of lineages II and III identified in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. OIE. Peste des Petits Ruminant Technical Disease card, Animals. Of the eight countries bordering Tanzania, PPR has been reported in four: Kenya, Uganda, Democratic Republic of Congo and Burundi (64, 65). History and current status of peste des petits ruminants virus in Tanzania. Abraham G, Berhan A. Grey literature was obtained using Google Search and the official websites of FAO and OIE (www.fao.org and www.oie.int). Uppsala: Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences Faculty (2016). Intervirology. doi: 10.1111/tbed.12229, 42. Muse EA, Matondo RB, Karimuribo ED, Misinzo G, Mellau LSB, Msoffe PLMAMO GGC. Control of PPR may be achieved by culling, confinement of infected animals, biosecurity measures to reduce infectious fomites, refusal of imports of sheep and goats from regions suffering outbreaks, and mass vaccination (85). (2012) 79:49–54. Advances in peste des petits ruminants vaccines. This resulted in a loss of potential income and a reduced ability of the flock to support household livelihood (by ~30%). Peste des petits ruminants in goats in India. PPR (Peste Des Petits) or small ruminant plague is a disease of sheep and goat, with a significant impact on the livelihoods and food security of small livestock keepers across the globe, wherein 1.44 billion small ruminants are at risk and on an … Epub 2020 Aug 21. Roos N. Seroepidemiology of Peste des petits Ruminants in central Tanzania Alongside an Evaluation of Filter Paper as Transport Medium. Pastoral production is associated with increased peste des petits ruminants seroprevalence in northern Tanzania across sheep, goats and cattle. Anim Health Res Rev. The process through which articles were sourced, identified, and selected for this review is shown in Figure 1. Additionally, this review aims to identify the challenges and research gaps to inform future control efforts, so that small ruminant production may be improved in this region of East Africa. Emerg Infect Dis. Kgotlele T, Kasanga CJ, Kusiluka LJ, Misinzo G. Preliminary investigation on presence of peste des petits ruminants in Dakawa, Mvomero district, Morogoro region, Tanzania. Despite this, PPR was observed a few months later in southern Tanzania in 2009 and proceeded to spread across the country, including to northern Tanzania (14, 36, 42, 43). Seroprevalence, geographical distribution, and risk factors of peste des petits ruminants in the Republic of Chad. (36) reported that poor zoo-sanitary habits by farmers and a lack of proper local and national control strategies are the main factors responsible for the persistence of PPRV in Tanzania. Since then, outbreaks of PPR have been reported in Tandahimba and Newala districts of Mtwara region of southern Tanzania in 2011 (43), in Ngorongoro and Mvomero districts in northern and eastern Tanzania (respectively) in 2012 (41), and in the Loliondo area in Ngorongoro district of Northern Tanzania in 2016 (27). Spiegel KA, Havas KA. The main symptoms of PPR described included anorexia, emaciation, severe depression, fever (40–41°C), diarrhea, muco-purulent nasal, and ocular discharge and erosive and necrotic stomatitis (14, 35). Epidemiological analysis of Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) outbreaks in Pakistan. These agree with those identified in studies from other PPR endemic countries for example in Ethiopia (81, 82), Kenya (83), India (84), and globally (33). Munir M. Role of wild small ruminants in the epidemiology of peste des petits ruminants. doi: 10.1016/j.prevetmed.2018.12.007, 83.  |  A pointer to this is the fact that the first report of PPR in Tanzania was an outbreak in Ngorongoro district, bordering Kenya (36, 53), and the strain of PPRV isolated belonged to lineage III, the same lineage predominant in Kenya, and other countries in East Africa at that time (36, 62). Although existing PPR vaccines provide life-long immunity, they require continuous refrigeration. BioMed Res Int. Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) outbreak in southern, Tanzania. In response to the incursion of PPR in Tanzania in 2008, the United Republic of Tanzania Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries carried out mass (blanket) vaccination of sheep and goats in the Northern and Lake Zones bordering Kenya through the Vaccination for Control of Neglected Animal Diseases in Africa (VACNADA) project, funded by the European Union Food Facility (37). (1979) 11:268–74. (2016) 11:e0149982. Am J Epidemiol Public Health. 15 Pastoralism. In the future, the development of a marker vaccine with a robust companion test may help in serosurveillance to identify infection in vaccinated animals to control PPR disease. Rajko-Nenow P, Flannery J, Arnold H, Howson EL, Darpel K, Stedman A, et al. Trop Anim Health Product. (2019) 11:12–20. Matthew M, Mruttu H, Gebru G. Animal Health Strategy and Vision for Tanzania. Prevalence and mortality rate of peste des petits ruminant (PPR): possible association with abortion in goat. Torsson E, Berg M, Misinzo G, Herbe I, Kgotlele T, Päärni M, et al. (2011) 30:879. doi: 10.20506/rst.30.3.2079, 77. 21. Remember, vaccines are continually monitored for safety, and like any medication, vaccines can cause side effects. Indeed, the epidemiological studies accessed for this work covered only few districts/areas of Tanzania, leaving huge areas without data on the status of PPR. For eligible articles, full text was subsequently reviewed while non-eligible articles were excluded. doi: 10.1007/s11259-009-9311-7, 49. doi: 10.1099/vir.0.025841-0, 11. Second, the high potential for cross-species transmission of PPRV from small ruminants to cattle in areas where these species live in close proximity suggests that monitoring … Flow diagram of the systematic review and identification of eligible articles. 12. Peste des Petits Ruminants Global Eradication Programme. (2018) 29:285–96. OIE. (2019) 11:249. doi: 10.3390/v11030249. Morogoro: Sokoine University of Agriculture (2014). Comparison of Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) disease between Tanzania and Kenya. “We are also working on the PPR vaccine project (vaccine against goat plague) to develop a thermal-stable vaccine (a vaccine that does not … (2014) 174:39–49. Additionally, there were two conference papers, four theses, and two technical reports. Elsawalhy A, Mariner JC, Chibeu D, Wamway H, Wakhusama S, Olaho-Mukani W, et al. Pegram RG, Tereke F. Observation on the health of Afar livestock. (2009) 22:319–22. Mbyuzi et al. Zahur AB, Ullah A, Irshad H, Latif A, Ullah RW, Jahangir M, et al. Dhar P, Sreenivasa BP, Barrett T, Corteyn M, Singh RP, Bandyopadhyay SK. It is closely related to other members of the genus, including rinderpest virus, measles virus, and canine distemper virus (8, 10). Commun. Here, we discuss available potent PPR vaccines and the future possibility of developing new-generation vaccines against PPR. Herd immunity levels required for successful prevention of PPR transmission is in the range of 70–90% (60), and previous vaccination campaigns in Tanzania may have fallen short of this estimate. Seroprevalence of Peste Des Petits Ruminants virus from samples collected in different regions of Tanzania in 2013 and 2015. 2019 Nov 19;6:392. doi: 10.3389/fvets.2019.00392. Vet. Dione MM, Traoré I, Kassambara H, Sow AN, Touré CO, Sidibé CAK, Séry A, Yena AS, Wieland B, Dakouo M, Diall O, Niang M, Fomba CO, Traoré M, Fall A. Cattle, goats, and sheep constitute a large share of the animals reared by Tanzanian households as sources of protein and livelihood (31), with sheep and goats accounting for about 22 percent of meat consumed in Tanzania (32). (2014) 2:18. doi: 10.4236/jbm.2014.26004, 78. The Nigerian strain 75/1 PPR vaccine is often used for PPR control in Tanzania, and other Southern African Development Community (SADC) member countries (26, 41). (2020) 165:2147–63. doi: 10.1007/s11250-017-1453-y, 91. A vaccine is used where the disease is established and it provides good immunity. p. 14–36. PPR is caused by peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV), species Small ruminant morbillivirus (SRMV), a member of the genus Morbillivirus, in the family Paramyxoviridae (8, 9). Clarke BD, Islam MR, Yusuf MA, Mahapatra M, Parida S. Molecular detection, isolation and characterization of Peste-des-petits ruminants virus from goat milk from outbreaks in Bangladesh and its implication for eradication strategy. These activities include communal grazing and housing, the mixing of infected animals with healthy animals in livestock markets, and the introduction of recently purchased or rustled animals to a herd. Trop Anim Health Product. Vaccine. The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. (2014) 2014:202618. doi: 10.1155/2014/202618, 69. Michael S, Mbwambo N, Mruttu H, Dotto MM, Ndomba C, da Silva M, et al. 43. Epub 2007 Feb 26. Received: 07 August 2020; Accepted: 29 October 2020; Published: 25 November 2020. doi: 10.1016/j.prevetmed.2014.06.013, 55. doi: 10.1016/j.smallrumres.2016.02.018, 20.

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