The term "Structural Adjustment Program" has gained such a negative connotation that the World Bank and IMF launched a new initiative, the Poverty Reduction Strategy Initiative, and makes countries develop Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers. Following an ideology known as neoliberalism, and spearheaded by these and other institutions known as the Washington Consensus (for being based in Washington D.C.), Structural Adjustment Policies (SAPs) have been imposed to ensure debt repayment and economic restructuring. Structural adjustment programs (SAPs) consist of loans provided by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank (WB) to countries that experience extensive economic crises. Instead, it continues to pursue short-term gain, viewing the strict economic reforms required by SAPs as the best way to promote U.S. economic welfare. Though reduction of world poverty is proclaimed as a major goal of U.S. and multilateral lenders, SAP policies hit poor people hardest. Washington should insist that all potentially affected sectors of the debtor country’s society are represented in the negotiating processes. In agriculture, SAPs augment the economic liberalization resulting from free trade agreements, undermining peasant agriculture while reinforcing export-oriented agribusiness (and its dependence on dangerous agrochemicals). The lender services the loan based on the assumption that certain fiscal policies will take place within the borrow- country. A structural adjustment program is a plan implemented by the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) in a developing nation to try to get their economies to be more productive. For example, a structural adjustment loan may include a stipulation that the borrowing country relax any protectionist subsidies or impose higher taxes to balance the budget. Die sozialen Dimensionen der Strukturanpassung – eine Zwischenbilanz, https://de.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Strukturanpassungsprogramm&oldid=202209219, „Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike“. The SAPs are supposed to allow the economies of the developing countries to become more market oriented. The U.S. should carefully examine what IMF Managing Director Michel Camdessus terms “the second generation of structural reform,” which includes further neoliberal macroeconomic reforms along with good governance conditionality and measures to provide temporary relief to those impacted by SAPs. Although there may be a new dynamism in certain elite sectors, social and economic insecurity deepens for most people in countries subjected to SAPs. Structural adjustment is a term used to describe the policies requested by the IMF in condition for financial aid when dealing with an economic crisis in. Overwhelming debt burdens, often resulting from poorly conceived development projects and North-imposed SAPs, prevent governments from retaining revenue and dedicating sufficient resources to health, education, the environment, and community development. Summary. Strukturanpassungsprogramm (SAP, englisch: Structural Adjustment Program, von der Enhanced Structural Adjustment Facility – deshalb auch ESAF-Program) bezeichnet wirtschaftliche Maßnahmen in Ländern der Dritten Welt, die vom Internationalen Währungsfonds (IWF) und der Weltbank als Bedingung für die Vergabe von Krediten oder den Schuldenerlass im Rahmen der HIPC-Initiative verlangt werden. Failures of Structural Adjustment Programs (SAPs) in Sub-Saharan Africa In this section, I will critically carry out an in-depth analysis of the fundamental shortcomings of the Structural Adjustment Programs (SAPs) by carefully looking into the critical aspects of the SAPs and how they relate to the social, economic and political weakening of Sub-Saharan Africa. The most recent change in SAPs is the IFIs’ promotion of good governance. To assist African development, Structural Adjustment Programmes (SAPs) provided “conditional lending” (Thomson, 2010: 197) – conditional, in that governments receiving debt relief were obliged to adjust their economic policy.In general, ‘adjustment’ meant liberalising and privatising, although SAPs were wider in scope in that their developmental aims were highly political. Other recommendations for a more responsible U.S. foreign policy include the following: Issues: Democracy & Governance, Labor, Trade, & Finance, Women, Foreign Policy In Focus - A project of the Institute for Policy Studies Content under a Creative Commons Attribution licence, by Carol Welch, Friends of the Earth, and Jason Oringer, Therefore, the conventional structural-adjustment programmes emphasised liberalisation, deregulation and privatisation. Diese Seite wurde zuletzt am 25. The neoliberal philosophy of economic development revived the old precepts of economic liberalism, which hold that an unregulated free market and private sector are the engines for unrestricted growth, the benefits of which will trickle down from the owners of capital to the entire population. Eine Studie des Entwicklungsökonomen William Easterly konnte keinen positiven Effekt von Strukturanpassungsprogrammen auf Wirtschaftswachstum finden.. The U.S. should encourage the recognition by the IFIs of the need for selective economic intervention by governments to regulate and guide sustainable and equitable growth. Structural Adjustment Programs typically include a lot of different policies which interact with each other. In the 1980s, SAPs became virtually synonymous with IFI lending. Citizen participation in all stages of IFI lending—from planning and defining the scope of projects to implementation and evaluation—should be standard. The World Bank recently launched a historic initiative to encourage such participation, working with civil society groups in several countries to assess the impact of SAPs (see SAPRI under Sources for More Information). The objective of social investment funds is to provide temporary relief and stave off political unrest until the benefits of neoliberal reform start trickling down. The leading role of the IMF has proven problematic in many ways. But while government balance sheets may improve, SAPs have failed to establish a base for sustainable, balanced economic development. To mitigate the harsh social impact of SAP-mandated economic restructuring and austerity measures, the IFIs have sponsored social investment funds. Virtually all developing countries—particularly in Latin America and Africa, and increasingly in the transition countries of east and central Europe—have implemented or are in the process of acceding to SAPs. Immediate debt relief for impoverished countries should be a priority for the U.S. and the IFIs. Jason Oringer, Carol Welch, What are Structural Adjustment Programmes (SAPs)? " But the IFIs only tend to adopt neostructuralist programs of social investment after the dirty work of neoliberal structural adjustment has been mostly completed. SAPs have also largely succeeded inshrinking government budget deficits, eliminating hyperinflation, and maintaining debt-payment schedules. Throughout the 1980s and 1990s the U.S. has been a principal force in imposing Structural Adjustment Programs (SAPs) on most countries of the South. reallocation of resources between sectors, changes in the distribution of income and institutional reform. A narrow elite in countries undergoing SAPs do benefit from restructuring and increased integration, but the main beneficiaries are foreign investors and traders. How do you establish it and measure it? Similarly, the U.S. should pressure the World Bank to reduce drastically its structural adjustment lending and increase lending for sustainable development projects. This perception is driven by the experience of the structural-adjustment programmes that the international financial institutions (IFIs) insisted on in the 1980s and 1990s. Structural adjustment " is the name given to a set of "free market" economic policy reforms imposed on developing countries by the Bretton Woods institutions (the World Bank and International Monetary Fund (IMF)) as a condition for receipt of loans. Likewise their late concern for good governance only surfaces after successive SAPs have already dismantled many important state institutions and continue to undermine the ability of governments to exercise control over national economic development. The structural adjustment program is essentially a conditional loan. ESAP is a top-down economic strategy which is designed to resuscitate an economy using massive doses of foreign exchange (acquired mostly through loans) and hugely increased … SAPs are broadly imposed on nearly all developing countries, while the North only selectively adheres to its own neoliberal principles. The U.S. should push for transparency in the lending operations of the IFIs. Formulated as loan conditions by Northern governments and the International Financial Institutions (IFIs), SAPs mandate macroeconomic policy changes that obligate recipient nations to liberalize their trade and investment policies. liegen in ihrer Zuständigkeit.“. Loan conditions and program documents should be publicly available so that all parties are informed and accountable. Structural adjustment is dead, long live structural adjustment. Structural adjustment programs, or SAPs for short, are a complex of loans that the World Bank (WB) and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) offer to a country suffering from an economic crisis. The U.S. leverages its dominant role in the global economy and in the IFIs to impose SAPs on developing countries and open their markets to competition from U.S. companies. The result can be increasing political instability (such as riots over food prices), outbreaks of guerrilla violence, and widespread disaffection with (and nonparticipation in) electoral political systems. Throughout the 1980s and 1990s the U.S. has been a principal force in imposing Structural Adjustment Programs (SAPs) on most countries of the South. In addition, both Washington and the IFIs consistently fail to broaden the scope of SAPs to consider poverty, unemployment, the health of the domestic market, the impact of development patterns on the environment, and a government’s capacity to ensure that the benefits of economic development are equitably distributed. These changes brought economic incentives more into line with the country's underlying comparative advantage. Many people consider them agencies of misery, poverty and social distress. Unfortunately, the U.S. has not exercised its leadership responsibly. Even when a SAP-directed economy is growing, it is generally failing to create employment and generate the revenues needed to pay for the unregulated influx of foreign imports. In 2016–17, in response to job shedding in the automotive, manufacturing and energy industries, the Department provided structural adjustment programs designed to help retrenched workers find new employment as quickly as possible. Structural adjustments … Ekei Etim (op. Good governance measures are now a criteria for the IFIs’ stamp of approval. Layoffs of government workers, wage constraints, higher interest rates, reduced government spending, and the shutdown of domestic industries all contribute to the shrinking of the domestic market. But SAPs are driven more by neoliberal ideological principles than by objective evaluations of a country’s specific economic problems and potential. Few would deny that such problems as persistent budget deficits, inefficient and ineffective government enterprises, and rapid inflation require reforms. The U.S. should also encourage a major role for affected governments in crafting the terms of agreements, rather than their being regarded as the passive recipients of SAPs. 30 July 2019 . But what does ‘successful’ mean? IMF Lending to Poor Countries—How does the PRGF differ from the ESAF? SAPs benefit a narrow stratum of the private sector—mostly those involved in export production, trade brokering, and portfolio finance. The U.S. should take the lead in advocating a major role for borrowing governments and their citizen representatives in determining loan conditions. SAPs are based on a short-term, profit-maximization model that perpetuates poverty, inequality, and environmental degradation. The U.S. should broaden the focus of its foreign economic policy away from the narrow and misplaced objectives of SAPs to give more consideration to other issues such as sustainable growth, equitable distribution, employment generation, and community development. As SAPs guide how money is spent, they are supposed to ensure good use of development funds. Elites and foreign investors often benefit from tax breaks and production incentives, while the domestic economy contracts dramatically, along with the jobs that support the lower and middle classes. By Yet SAPs are largely imposed on developing countries without sufficient input from the very sectors of society that will be subjected to them. A structural adjustment is set of economic reforms that a country must adhere to in order to secure a loan from the International Monetary Fund and/or the World Bank. In this latter regard, SAPs have been successful. Starting in the 1980s, the U.S. also routinely began conditioning its aid agreements on acceptance of a package of economic reforms and adherence to the prescriptions of the World Bank and IMF. Economic Structural Adjustment Programs (ESAP), Paper 5 Zimbabwe History Advanced level. Foreign loans and aid agreements should be transparent. Interhemispheric Resource Center, AIDS and Developing Countries: Facilitating Access to Essential Medicines, Economic Debacle In Argentina: The IMF Strikes Again. Largely championed by the Reagan administration and Margaret Thatcher’s government in Britain, the neoliberal principles that shape SAPs gained prominence in the IFIs in the 1980s. SAPs usually include several basic components geared toward reducing inflation, promoting exports, meeting debt-payment schedules, and decreasing budget deficits. The underlying structural reasons for poverty, unemployment, and malnourishment are left unaddressed. Die Maßnahmen, deren Ursprünge auf die Bekämpfung der Schuldenkrise der 80er Jahre in den Entwicklungsländern zurückgehen, basieren auf marktwirtschaftlichen Prinzipien. The implementation of the SAPs, it is claimed, has arrested Ghana's economy from complete collapse, resulted in consistent growth in GDP averaging 6% over the past decade, reduced inflation levels, created budget surplus, and increased export earnings. Understandably, the World Bank maintains that its structural adjustment programmes (SAPs) have been ‘successful’. After decades of subverting populist and interventionist central governments, the IFIs have recently accepted some of the criticisms leveled against their neoliberal notions of a minimalist state. As a result, the standard structural adjustment package advocated by the IFIs and the U.S. government fails to address a country’s individual needs, thereby generating an array of economic, social, political, and environmental problems. Page 4) notes that a UN survey of 12 African structural adjustment programmes (SAPs) found little improvement in export earnings following such devaluation and that, since the demand for most of Africa's exports are inelastic - price fluctuations change demand very little devaluation of African currencies has led to steep declines in export revenues. In Africa, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank do not have a good reputation. Increased unemployment and decreased government services are the most direct blows, but changes in the tax system often emphasize easy-to-collect, regressive sales taxes that also disproportionately affect the lower classes. The insistence by SAPs on the deregulation of laws and the downsizing of enforcement agencies further obstructs a government’s capacity to protect its environment. This new programming—called neostructuralism by some analysts—reduces the social and political impact of SAPs through temporary job programs and other relief measures. Yet in many cases the GDP growth of countries undergoing structural adjustment is stagnant. The emphasis placed by SAPs on increased exports can hasten the destruction of ecosystems by accelerating extractive enterprises such as the timber, mining, and fishing industries. The U.S. plays a fundamental role in designing and financing structural adjustment programs of the main IFIs, namely the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF), as well as those of the regional multilateral banks such as the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB). Um einen Schuldenerlass zu erhalten, müssen die Länder nun so genannte Armutsbekämpfungs- und Wachstumsprogramme durchführen (Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility, PRGF). Tightened credit requirements and higher interest rates make it virtually impossible for small farmers and businesses to invest. If economic standards and the adoption of economic policies are conditioned to financial assistance, they should not be stricter than those that the U.S. and other donor nations find acceptable for themselves, and they should be mutually agreed upon by both the U.S. and the borrowing country. Der Globalisierungskritiker Michel Chossudovsky bilanziert „Die Weltbank ist in vielen Ministerien der kreditnehmenden Länder präsent. Structural Adjustment Programs have been adopted by Kenya since the late 1980s along IMF-WB lines in order to solve the problems of growing foreign debt, fiscal and balance of payments (BOP) deficits, shortage of foreign exchange, stagnant productive sectors (especially the export-oriented sectors), and rising levels of unemployment. Cit. The liberalization of trade does make imported items less expensive, but most people in low-income countries consume little besides basic necessities. SAPs share a common objective: to move countries away from self-directed models of national development that focus on the domestic market and toward outward-looking development models that stress the importance of complete integration into the dominant global structures of trade, finance, and production. The goal of such a program is to help the borrowing nation pay off its debts and have a growing economy that will sustain them into the future. Although the IFIs and the U.S. government have touted SAPs as a solution to the economic problems facing the world’s poor and middle-income countries, the unstated goal of IFI-mandated structural adjustment is to integrate the countries of the South more completely into the North-dominated global trading, finance, and production systems. These claims are made sometimes more stridently, sometimes more cautiously and with qualifications. The U.S. could choose to spearhead an effort to shift the focus of structural adjustment. Question. The most important change the U.S. could initiate is to make binational and multinational financial agreements a more inclusive and open process. They generally entail severe reductions in government spending and employment, higher interest rates, currency devaluation, lower real wages, sale of government enterprises, reduced tariffs, and liberalization of foreign investment regulations. The IMF and World Bank are expanding their loan conditions (and hence their power) to include reforms in tax, budgetary, and judicial system transparency, along with the traditional economic policies. Structural Adjustment A government program in a developing country making changes to economic or monetary policies in order to better facilitate growth. The Structural Adjustment Programs (SAPs) are created with the goal of reducing the borrowing country’s fiscal imbalances. Washington’s foreign policy should encourage sustainable, equitable development that benefits local people rather than international traders and financiers. To what extent did the Economic Structural Programme (ESAP) achieved its objectives in Zimbabwe by the mid 1990s. Thus, reforms intended to open countries to foreign trade, investment, and finance may result in increased exports and greater access to foreign capital, but they also heighten financial volatility and speculative investment, flood the affected countries with imported luxury goods, undermine local industry, and constrict local buying power. Structural Adjustment Programmes (SAPs) are economic policies for developing countries that have been promoted by the World Bank and International Monetary Fund (IMF) since the early 1980s by the provision of loans conditional on the adoption of such policies. Kritisiert werden die Strukturanpassungsprogramme auch von dem US-amerikanischen Wirtschaftswissenschaftler und Nobelpreisträger Joseph E. Stiglitz. With the waning of North-South private capital flows, indebted countries became increasingly dependent on the IFIs, which conditioned new lending on the implementation of SAPs. Through its financial clout in the IFIs, its central role in shaping global economic integration, and its own bilateral lending programs, Washington has the power to change or eliminate SAPs. In order to improve the terms of the current loan or to get a new one, the country in … STRUCTURAL ADJUSTMENT PROGRAMME IN TANZANIA Tanzania got her independence in 1961 at that time it was under the leadership of Julius K. Nyerere, Tanzania adopted and practiced socialism even though, the country was a multi-ethnic society, all the groups were united by the language of Kiswahili introduces by Nyerere. The longer term Structural Adjustment Programme is aimed at the promotion of production and resource mobilisation through the promotion of commodity exports, public sector reform, market liberalisation and institutional reform. Furthermore, U.S. and IFI debt-relief programs should be delinked from SAP conditionalities. Since 1983, Ghana has been undergoing World Bank and International Monetary Fund (IMF) sponsored Structural Adjustment Programs (SAPs). These winners are usually well-connected elites and transnational companies. SAPs may achieve nominal GDP growth, but it is growth based on unsustainable resource extraction and the exploitation of cheap labor. Structural adjustment loans are loans made by the World Bank. Although governance stipulations (such as increased budgetary transparency and judicial reform) may be positive changes, they place an added burden on countries and increase the power of Washington and the IFIs to dictate policy in the South. The bank from which a borrowing country receives its loan depends upon the type of necessity. Strukturanpassungsprogramm (SAP, englisch: Structural Adjustment Program, von der Enhanced Structural Adjustment Facility – deshalb auch ESAF-Program) bezeichnet wirtschaftliche Maßnahmen in Ländern der Dritten Welt, die vom Internationalen Währungsfonds (IWF) und der Weltbank als Bedingung für die Vergabe von Krediten oder den Schuldenerlass im Rahmen der HIPC-Initiative verlangt werden. SAPs often succeed in achieving specific objectives such as privatizing state enterprises, reducing inflation, and decreasing budget deficits. Structural Adjustment Policies: Main Features and Social Implications The economic policies dictated by the IFIs and Washington have greatly facilitated the process of global economic integration. While the name has changed, with PRSPs, the World Bank is still forcing countries to adopt the same types of policies as SAPs. At the World Bank, new leadership installed by the U.S. (which traditionally appoints the president of the World Bank) touted SAPs as comprehensive, long-term solutions for debtor nations. Structural adjustment programs were sponsored by the Bretton Woods Institutions (BWIs) and ubiquitously included capital account and trade openness, devaluation, a reduction in the public sector and privatization of publicly owned companies. Diese Wegbereiter zur von Weltbank, WHO und IWF verlangten Good Governance nötigten bittstellenden Staaten nicht selten einige ihrer Souveränitätsrechte ab. Social safety nets and good governance reforms do not compensate for the serious flaws that SAPs introduce by deregulating laws and diminishing the state’s capacity to protect the welfare of its citizens. Conditions and terms of all lending should be stated publicly so that the recipient country’s citizenry is fully aware of the potential impact of lending agreements. Sometimes SAPs are imposed despite overt opposition. April 1, 1998. Die dort durchgeführten Reformen in Gesundheit, Bildung, Industrie, Landwirtschaft, Verkehr, Umwelt usw. The policies are designed to tackle the root cause of the problem and provide a framework for long term development and long term growth. It is most likely that the countries in which SAPs are implemented differ in terms of their economies and pre-program conditions from non-program countries but also from each other. ‘Structural Adjustment’ or simply ‘adjustment’, emphasises the fact that in some instances successful stabilization requires structural changes in the domestic economy, e.g. The debt crisis, which reached crisis proportions by 1982, gave the IFIs the leverage needed to impose SAPs on the debt-ridden countries of the South. The SAPs designed by the Bretton woods institution, the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund and later embraced by other major international fin… In its insistence on the promotion of the private sector, Washington fails to recognize the fundamental importance of government regulations and safety nets in fostering and maintaining economic development. Though macroeconomic factors need not be excluded from Washington’s policies, they should be part of a broader definition of U.S. national interests overseas and should encompass more than simply facilitating U.S. trade and investment.