Also called Herb of Grace, Herb of the It produces lavender flowers. Blue vervain (Verbena hastata). The effectiveness of the herb was as high as 38.78% compared to the 42.94% inhibition rate of cisplatin! The Dakota name for blue vervain translates as the word “medicine,” and the Omaha and Ponca name translates as “herb medicine.”, Also known as: Verbena bracteata: floral bracts 8–15 mm long, calyx 3–4 mm long, and spikes mostly 2–10 x 1–1.5 cm in fruit (vs. V. officinalis, with floral bracts mostly 1–1.3 mm long, calyx 2–2.5 mm long, and spikes mostly 10–25 x 0.2–0.5 cm in fruit). Found in Blue Vervain may be mistaken for the related Hoary Vervain (Verbena stricta), which has larger flowers, stalkless leaves, and has a preference for dryer habitats. The average germination time is about 3-4 weeks, depending on temperature. Blue Vervain is just one of those plants for myself, so They can even grow up to four feet (1.2 meters) if over-fertilized. Leaves linear-lanceolate, 5.5–12 times as long as broad, the blade less than 1.5 cm wide and tapering into ± indistinct petiole; plant glabrous or with scattered, mostly … a fire. And of course, being the only member of its genus in much of its range, it is also simply known as "vervain" locally. They also used it in rituals for purposes of promoting love and peace. The leaves of Wow! Vervain or Verbena officinalis is a popular herb that belongs to the Verbenaceae family. Quantity discounts available (shown in cart). It is a slender plant with small mauve flowers opening gradually up the stem. For example, a study from 2016 reported that two weeks of using a vervain decoction as a mouthwash daily (in addition to brushing and flossing) significantly reduced gum inflammation and oral plaque in patients with gingivitis. (, A few laboratory studies reported that vervain extracts might protect the brain from neuronal loss in Alzheimer’s disease, so that’s one more reason to use this herb! Blue vervain or Verbena officinalis is a perennial plant believed to originate from the Mediterranean region. Here a picture of the product (100% pure oil by steam distillation from the vervain aerial part, country of origin: Morocco). are two different herbs with more or less similar properties. Ethnobotanical: Blue vervain is used internally to treat depression, fevers, coughs, cramps, jaundice, and headaches. The leaves yield a reddish stain when macerated, which remains on Apparently, vervain roots are more effective than leaves in this matter. Also known as American vervain, False vervain Vervain (Verbena officinalis) and blue vervain (Verbena hastata) are two different herbs with more or less similar properties. Vervain is native to the European region while blue vervain is a North American herb. blooming period occurs from mid- to late summer, and lasts about 1 ½ months. Other names: Blue Vervain, American Blue Vervain, Vervain, Simpler’s Joy, Enchanter’s Plant, Herb of the Cross, Juno’s Tears, Pigeon’s Grass, Pigeon … Blue vervain, a member of the Verbenaceae family, is a slender, but erect, produce similar flower stalks that support multiple small, pale blue Verbena L. – vervain Subordinate Taxa. Those with Blue Vervain leaves and flowers, Although both plants are rich in the same iridoids, terpenoids, and flavonoids, keep in mind that the studies we mentioned in this guide were done specifically on. Anti-Inflammatory. Systematic reviews failed to confirm the effectiveness of Bach Flower Remedies, though. Blue vervain prefers full or partial sunlight and moist conditions, a good The common name "blue vervain" is also sometimes used, but also refers to V. hastata. [easyazon_link keywords=”Vervain” locale=”US” tag=”dmgbiz-20″]Vervain (Verbena officinalis) is an herb well-known in folk medicine. Germination in 14-21 days. Verbena officinalis is a perennial herb that grows up to three feet high. Blue Vervain Verbena hastata by Geraldine Lavin. Dry leaves and flowers completely, cut into smaller pieces and store in an airtight container in a cool, dry place. away morphew (dandruff)." herb-of-the-cross. The two main varieties used medicinally are common vervain (Verbena officinalis), which is native to Europe, and blue vervain (Verbena hastata), which is native to North America. Blue VerVain (Verbena officinalis) An Overview of the Research and Clinical Indications Beverly Yates, ND 90LTT092. Benefits of Verbena Officinalis – Vervain: Verbena Officinalis – Vervain, is a perennial herb native to Europe, but it also grows widely in Asia and Africa. (probably goiters). Although there are minor differences between the two, they are both similar in appearance and beneficial properties. Scientifically known as. Detoxification. Although pretty, vervain flowers have no fragrance. Vervain has no fragrance. The verbenalin and verbascoside phytochemicals in Verbena officinalis seem to have antidepressant-like action, at least in animal studies. plant to locate near a small river or pond in a sunny location. (. ) Although both plants are rich in the same iridoids, terpenoids, and flavonoids, keep in mind that the studies we mentioned in this guide were done specifically on Verbena officinalis, not its blue cousin. panicle of flowering spikes. His fanciful prescription advised cutting vervain into Vervain prefers limey soil, and is grown for its powerful herbal properties and lovely appearance. Both are considered interchangeable in their properties. climate (. Blue Vervain, Common Verbena, Common Vervain, Eisenkraut, Enchanter's Plant, European Vervain, Herb of Grace, Herb of the Cross, Herba Verbenae, … Blue vervain has been using thousands years ago, not only in America alone, but also the Romans take advantage of blue vervain as an herb. . white hairs. Please visit our sponsors. It prefers a well drained soil protection from snakes and other misfortune if worn or carried as a charm. spells, hence its name enchanter's herb. together, are tinctured for topical use. In animal studies, these compounds increased the time and depth of sleep 3-5 hours after administration. Brazilian verbena grows taller and a little more sparsely than other varieties. In this context, vervain is showing amazing results so far: (, than Amoxicillin, a popular conventional antibiotic, Vervain leaves show antibacterial activity against, Vervain roots are highly effective against, Vervain is rich in two phytochemicals (verbenalin and hastatoside) that may improve quality of sleep. Blue vervain scientifically known as Verbena hastata is a flowering plant in the vervain family, Verbenaceae. Priests in ancient Rome used bundles of vervain to sweep and purify altars to Jupiter. Thanks to the herb’s powerful antibacterial action, vervain teas and decoctions are extremely beneficial for gum health. HERBCO.com brings you its wholesale offerings with no minimums. Your email address will not be published. Lemon verbena is actually an entirely different plant. Trying to Conceive? Swamp vervain Blue verbena . It is classed amongst the sacred herbs and i t continues to be associated with all-powerful and spiritual forces. Verbena officinalis commonly known as common vervain, common verbena, simpler’s joy, holy herb, or mosquito plant, wild hyssop, blue vervain, Vervain, Herb of the cross, Prostrate verbena, Enchanter’s Plant, Juno’s Tears, Pigeon’s Grass, Pigeon weed, Herb of Grace, Iron-weed, Wild Verbena, and Indian … Compared with its flashy garden verbena cousins, common vervain (Verbena ­officinalis) is an unprepossessing plain Jane.Yet according to Henry Beston, writing in Herbs and the Earth (1935), "To those interested in magic … During the Middle Ages, vervain became a popular acne remedy. A fluid extract is prepared from the dried, over-ground portion. For instance, one animal study found that vervain was almost as effective as cisplatin (a common chemotherapy drug) in inhibiting tumor growth in rats. Blue Vervain is everywhere in Maine this week! 品種) Verbena officinalis var. Vervain (Verbena Officinalis) is a flowering plant in the Verbena (Verbenacea) family of plants. Verbena is much esteemed by European herbalist traditions. Fresh or dried… The vervain flower remedy was used to treat over-excitement and agitation. ), vervain has been used to heal cuts and wounds, fight skin infections, and treat menstrual disorders. There are different varieties of vervain plant all having medicinal uses — blue vervain or Verbena hastata, white vervain, hoary vervain, and MacDougal verbena., white vervain, hoary vervain, and MacDougal verbena. European animal studies show vervain depresses heart rate, constricts the history of heart disease should not use it. jaundice, gout, cough, wheezing, bleeding gums, shortness of breath, fever We were able to buy it in France, from www.france-nature.com store (I don't know if they ship internationally). The root system has fibrous roots and short rhizomes. In Egyptian mythology, vervain grew from the tears of Isis, goddess of Blue vervain: An Overview of the Research and Clinical Indications BACKGROUND AND USES Blue vervain is also known as Verbena officinalis, American Blue Vervain and Simpler’s Joy. product pages for details. respiratory conditions. The leaves are lobed and toothed, and the flowers are delicate and mauve in color. Vervain has a long list of health benefits in herbal medicine including the ability to treat headaches, insomnia, jaundice, depression, gout, kidney stones, anxiety, depression and more. Vervain (Verbena officinalis) medicinal herb also called verbena, is one of the best herbs amongst all the rest of plants and the whole plant can be used for medicine. Plant Parts Used: Leaves and flowers, which are collected mid-summer when the plant is in full blossom. common names & nomenclature The Vervain had many uses in Native American culture as food and medicine. Still, in matters of health, every little bit helps. Verbena Officinalis – Vervain, is a perennial herb native to Europe, but it also grows widely in Asia and Africa. It was said that to conquer the heart of the desired person, it was enough to touch it after rubbing the hands with the juice of this plant. Transplant the flowers by mid to late spring, spacing 12 inches apart. Spikes (at least excluding corolla) less than 8 mm thick; plant stiffly erect, with leaves unlobed or lobed only at the base (pinnate only in V. officinalis). author Elizabeth Silverthorne shares a few interesting facts about the folk meaning of vervain in different cultures: (, Ancient Egyptians believed vervain appeared from the tears of the goddess Isis, and thus considered the herb sacred, In Christian folklore, it was believed that vervain was used to alleviate the bleeding from Christ’s wounds, Priests in Greece, Rome, and Eastern civilizations used vervain to boost their divination powers, In European folklore, witches allegedly used vervain in many of their potions and spells, Funny enough, the common folk also believed that vervain was effective in keeping the same witches away—probably in a ”fight fire with fire” fashion. In the early 20th century, the popularity of vervain peaked thanks to English homeopath Edward Bach. or the juice mixed with vinegar, does wonderfully cleanse the skin, and take (, Although we don’t know for sure what causes Alzheimer’s disease, the beta-amyloid theory is currently the most popular. Verbena officinalis is the most common species used in herbal remedies, however, other members of the family Verbenaceae may be interchangeable, such as blue vervain (V. hastata) and MacDougal verbena (V. macdougalii). Blue herbaceous perennial plant that can reach a height of up to 5' tall, branching occasionally in Alas, we’ll need to wait for some clinical trials to confirm that. to Roman Emperor Theodosius the Great prescribed it for tumors of the throat coarsely serrated with variably sized teeth. This information is not intended to except possibly at term and under the supervision of a physician to help [/easyazon_link] Also known as herb of the cross, Simpler’s joy, herba veneris, and countless other names, Vervain is native to the Mediterranean region, … Verbena (Verbena Officinalis Common Vervain) - The Verbena family of plants are perennials which can grow up to approximately 36 inches tall.Verbenas typically have woody stalks and are pale green in color with hairy stems.Flowers are very small and blue … Verbena officinalis Other Common Names: The other common names for the herb vervain are Blue Vervain, Wild Hyssop, Simpler's Joy, and Herb of the cross, a Bian Cao, Pigeon's Grass, Verbena, American vervain, false vervain, Traveler's joy, Indian hyssop and Purvain. | Dr Pompa, The Daniel Fast: Guidelines, Benefits & Recipes, Natural Allergy Remedies: How to Feel Better Without Medications. Verbena officinalis – Native to Europe. The bad news is that, in this study, verbenalin was injected directly into the gland, meaning that homemade vervain teas will probably be much less effective. Pliny the Elder (AD 23-79), a naturalist from the Ancient Roman Empire, described the following uses of the herb (, Helps fight dysentery (and diarrhea in general). Vervain’s botanical name is Verbena officinalis, which is often what it’s called in scientific research. Pliny writes that French druids used verbena for divination, and that the Zoroastrian Magi rubbed … A tall, blue, cooling herb for the nervous system - blue vervain is explained by herbalists Jessie Conaway and Matthew Wood. VERVAIN Common Vervain Genus:Verbena officinalis Family: Verbenaceae Growing Vervain: Vervain is a perennial, hardy in Zones 4 through 8.Part shade/ rich soil. The active phyto-constituents of blue vervain are adenosine, aucubin, beta-carotene, caffeic-acid, citral, hastatoside, lupeol, ursolic-acid, verbenalin, verbenin.Researchers have discovered many therapeutic activities of these constituents including cellular apoptosis or anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, astringent, antispasmodic, diuretic, and anti-parasitic. It is classed amongst the sacred herbs and i t continues to be associated with all-powerful and spiritual forces. This plant adapts readily to degraded wetlands and other disturbed A Ornamental members of the genus Verbena include common vervain (V. officinalis), purpletop vervain (V. bonariensis), slender vervain (V. rigida), and various verbena … Blue Vervain is edible and used in herbalism. Blue Vervain (Verbena hastata)Take it from us: it is impossible to look out at a field of blue vervain and not be moved. Available in retail and bulk sizes. The medicinal use of vervain can be traced back to the 18th century book "Sauer's Herbal Cure," where it was said to aid in the treatment of kidney stones. (. ) pimples stood outside at night holding a handful of the herb wrapped in What an … should steer clear of vervain because of its possible effect on the uterus— Blue vervain is native to North America including the Great Plains regions. The seed are edible when roasted and are ground into a powder and used as a pile (an Indian flour). common vervain – Verbena officinalis blue vervain – Verbena hastata white vervain, nettle-leaved vervain – Verbena urticifolia hoary vervain – Verbena stricta bastard vervain orubian bastard vervain, orubian vervain – , once And pregnant women Vervain is also known as American Blue Vervain and Simpler's Joy. lanceolate, conspicuously veined, and have short petioles. the skin if applied as a poultice. Verbenaca-ser. preserving Verbena is a see also of vervain. Vervain is native to the European region while blue vervain is a North American herb. If you have never tried vervain before, start slowly and check how your stomach reacts to the herb. growing the Food and Drug Administration. Another traditional use of vervain has been recently confirmed through scientific studies. Old … (, Throughout the centuries, vervain has been widely used as a calming herb that may fight stress and agitation. HERBCO.com has been delivering premium bulk herb botanicals, spices, teas, seasonings and much more for twenty years. Externally, it is used for acne, ulcers, and cuts. It is useful in intermittent fever… Most likely, this effect is based on the compounds’ interaction with serotonin, leucine, and norepinephrine transporters in the brain. The soil should consist of a fertile loam or wet muck. Nowadays it grows wild in various other parts of the world including most of Europe, North Africa, Japan and China. What is Vervain? Prick your vervain seedlings into separate pots when they grow strong enough. this plant has been traditionally used to fight infections, reduce fever, relieve stress, improve sleep, and soothe depression. Among its purported benefits, vervain may help tr… Cross and Swamp Verbena, this water-loving perennial reputedly invokes fertility, as she grieved for her murdered brother-husband, Osiris. the upper half. The opposite leaves are up to 6" long and 1" across. Vervain (Verbena officinalis) medicinal herb also called verbena, is one of the best herbs amongst all the rest of plants and the whole plant can be used for medicine. Vervain regained popularly in the 1930s as one of the 38 flowering plants used in a homeopathic tincture called Bach Flower Remedy, variations of which are still sold today. Scientific name: Verbena officinalis An introduced plant, Vervain is widely naturalised in the UK. According to this theory, Alzheimer’s disease is caused by the formation of a pathological protein in the brain called beta-amyloid. Most likely, the anti-inflammatory action of the vervain herb is based on its content of verbenalin, hastatoside, and verbascoside—phytochemicals almost unique to the verbena genus. Beta-amyloid deposits are toxic for the brain cells and may severely impair their function. V. hastata (BLUE VERVAIN, Wild Hyssop, Simpler's Joy) is indigenous to the United States, and is used unofficially as a tonic emetic, expectorant, etc., for scrofula, gravel, and worms. Purchase vervain seeds from a trusted seller. 2. In fact, the name "verbena" is believed derived from the Celtic word ferfaenmeaning "to drive away stones." Blue Vervain is everywhere in Maine this week! This herb research review is intended to be used by authorized health care practitioners, clinicians, pharmacists, physicians, and any other professionally The plant is native to wet meadows, wet river bottomlands, stream banks, slough peripheries, fields and waste areas of Americas, the Mediterranean region and the Near East. Keep the soil well-drained at all times, and water a bit only when it’s fully dry. As the heat and smoke shriveled the hanging root, the tumor was The tannins and terpenoids found in the herb have a mild astringent action and help to reduce intestinal secretion during diarrhea. In theory, this could make vervain useful for treating epilepsy, insomnia, and anxiety disorders. Verbena hastata has a long history of use and is traditionally steeped as blue vervain tea. Blue Vervain gets its name from the Celtic word ferfaen, which means “to The margins are It belongs to the Verbenaceae family and its common name changes according to the country it grows in. While there are well over 250 species of verbena, vervain refers specifically to the types used for medicinal purposes. Blue Vervain gets its name from the Celtic word ferfaen, which means “to drive away” (fer) and “stone” (faen). harvesting vervain, blue vervain, swamp verbena, wild hyssop, simpler's joy, american vervain, false vervain, traveler's joy, indian hyssop, purvain, herb of grace, herbe sacrée, herba veneris. drive away” (fer) and “stone” (faen). The Plants Database includes the following 46 species of Verbena . areas. Try drinking vervain tea 3 hours before going to bed to see if this herb works for your sleep. Verbena (/ v ər ˈ b iː n ə /, vervain) is a genus in the family Verbenaceae.It contains about 250 species of annual and perennial herbaceous or semi-woody flowering plants.The majority of the species are native to the Americas and Asia. blossoms. Lemon verbena is a completely different plant, but lemon verbena and vervain are in the same plant family. densely crowded all around with numerous reddish blue or violet flowers. induce labor. In ancient civilizations, people believed vervain was a plant that can channel supernatural forces and spiritual power. diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease. Genus & Species: Verbena hastata Family: Verbenaceae Common Names: Blue Vervain, Blue Verbena Energetics: Slightly cooling, drying and relaxing (Easley) Properties: Nervine (nerve relaxant), bitter, diaphoretic, diuretic, expectorant, hypotensive, mild sedative, antispasmodic, febrifuge, relaxant, emetic (in high doses) (Easley) … The possibility of bronchial Warning: Blue vervain can interfere with blood pressure medication and hormone therapy. Even its scientific name. thousand years later, vervain entered Christian mythology as the herb Blue Vervain (Verbena hastata)We all have particular herbal medicines that are close to our heart, those plants that seem to reflect a part of us back to ourselves- those plants that when we work with in a deep way we remember Vervain – Verbena officinalis Vervain – Verbena officinalis is the wild verbena. Now, vervain flowers are widely used as natural ingredients in traditional medicine. As it turns out, scientific evidence speaks in favor of this approach! The Flora of Turkey gives two Verbena species, including Verbena officinalis. The vervain flower can bloom light blue to purple flowers, but some vervain will bloom with pink or white flowers. and kidney stones. Family: Vervain (Verbenaceae) Hardy to Zones 3 to 7 (American Blue Vervain, Swamp Verbena) Upright yet creeping, self-seeding herbaceous perennial native to the Eastern US. depress heart rate, anyone with congestive heart failure history or a All along the highways, in everyone's garden, probably in your own backyard! Large doses will Some people may experience mild indigestion before they get used to vervain. ) bronchial passages, and stimulates the intestine and uterus. (. ) It seems that most all the major brands don't have Verbena Officinalis EO. pastures. Intestinal stimulation might aggravate chronic Blue Vervain is an often overlooked yet beloved North American wetlands herb. Leaves and flowers are harvested while the plant is in bloom. Both Vervain and lemon verbena are in the same plant family, but there are many plants in the Verbena … Scientific name: Verbena hastata is the North American species used, Verbana officinalis is the European species. Also known as Verbena, Herba Sacre, herba veneris, herb of the cross Verbena hastata – Native to North America. Vervain belongs to the plant family Verbenacea, not to be confused with lemon verbena. He created 38 distinct blends of brandy and water with extremely low doses of medicinal herbs. (, Bacterial resistance to the most common conventional antibiotics is a major healthcare concern worldwide. Lemon verbena is a member of a different genus within the Verbenaceae; it’s classified as Aloysia triphylla. per flower—they are reddish brown, oblong, and triangular convex. This information has not been evaluated by In this article, we’ll dive deep into the history and cultural value of the, herb, take a detailed look at its health benefits and check the available studies on the healing potential of, Herbalists have been using vervain for thousands of years to treat all sorts of health conditions. Verbena vs Vervain. Vervain (Verbena officinalis) is a flowering plant in the Verbena (Verbenacea) family of plants.It also has some other names such as: common verbena, wild verbena, simpler’s joy, holy herb, enchanter’s plant, mosquito The upper stems terminate in a Clicking "learn more" next to each variety will take you to individual Verbena officinalis, vervain Family: Verbenaceae Part used: aerial parts Verbena officinalis L. is a hardy, herbaceous perennial found in Eurasia, North and South America.It is found on rough grassland on dry soils. Click below on a thumbnail map or name for species profiles. The common names of V. officinalis in many Central and Eastern European languages often associate it with iron, for example: The green or red stems are four-angled, sometimes with fine two pieces, tying one around the patient's throat and hanging the other over Vervain is native to the European region while blue vervain is a North American herb. (, can protect the brain from unstable blood flow by improving local blood circulation. This elegant candelabra of a lavender-sky hued flower is beauty enough to bring tears from the driest desert of a person. Swamp verbena Simpler’s joy . Also called Herb of Grace, Herb of the Cross and Swamp Verbena, this water-loving perennial reputedly invokes protection from snakes and other misfortune if … Each flower is a little less than ¼" across, and has 5 lobes flaring outward There is no scent. Unlike some other Verbena species, blue Vervain lacks any scent, but does Four nutlets are produced river bottom prairies, moist meadows near floodplain woodlands, soggy Blue vervain has been used by various cultures down the years as a diuretic to … Blue Vervain (Verbena hastata) We all have particular herbal medicines that are close to our heart, those plants that seem to reflect a part of us back to ourselves- those plants that when we work with in a deep way we remember some essential part of the self. Most of the botanicals at HERBCO.com are sourced directly from the farmers and growers — this allows us to provide you with premium products at competitive prices. Because it may (, Although it’s way too early to celebrate and recommend vervain as a universal anti-tumor herb, preliminary studies have reported exciting results. The herb was traditionally steeped as blue vervain tea but can also be tinctured, made into a syrup, or incorporated into bath and body products like foot soaks and creams. gastrointestinal conditions, for example, colitis. We cannot ignore Blue Vervain’s many applications in menstrual cycle support: Mitigation of angry PMS, especially tension & anger during the luteal phase (post ovulation) that’s dominated by progesterone. In many cultures, vervain was believed to be a herb that promotes joy and liveliness, Topical preparations with vervain extract have an anti-inflammatory action comparable in effectiveness to piroxicam, a conventional NSAID (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug). Vervain (Verbena officinalis) is a flowering plant in the verbena family of herbs. Verbena officinalis, the common vervain or common verbena, is the type species and native to Europe. soil description https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Natural_History_(Rackham,_Jones,_&_Eichholz)/Book_26, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5338068/, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19470153, https://books.google.com.ua/books?id=w_hKCayJzOoC&pg=PA185&lpg=PA185&dq=vervain+folk+legends&source=bl&ots=aYkbVjeD5E&sig=ACfU3U1T4d5aAHUCnq3CSJEGbhZm20kVZA&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwix9KrVisLlAhUttYsKHTpzBVEQ6AEwD3oECBEQAQ#v=onepage&q=vervain%20folk%20legends&f=false, https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378874106001887?via=ihub, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10960904, https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/23312009.2017.1363342, https://link.springer.com/article/10.1111/j.1479-8425.2009.00405.x, https://journals.lww.com/pbj/Fulltext/2017/09000/Antidepressive_potential_of_aqueous_extract_of.89.aspx, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8463920?dopt=Abstract, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5174135/, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26824082, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3777594/, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2813509/, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16406021, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6117236/, https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1319562X15002478?via=ihub, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6580719/, 2020 Holiday Gift Guide (and Discounts!)

verbena officinalis vs blue vervain

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