In 1751, Jussieu planted a few seeds in France and sent others on to Philip Miller, the superintendent at the Chelsea Physic Garden, and to Philip C. Webb, the owner of an exotic plant garden in Busbridge, England. Light was shed on the taxonomic status of ailanthus in 1788 when René Louiche Desfontaines observed the samaras of the Paris specimens, which were still labelled Rhus succedanea, and came to the conclusion that the plant was not a sumac. This small, very colorful moth resembles a true bug or beetle when not in flight, but in flight it resembles a wasp. The same study tested the extract as an herbicide on garden cress, redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus), velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti), yellow bristlegrass (Setaria pumila), barnyard grass (Echinochloa crusgalli), pea (Pisum sativum cv. The flowers are small, yello… [23] In western North America it is most common in mountainous areas around old dwellings and abandoned mining operations. [8] These are virtually found anywhere in the U.S., but especially in arid regions bordering the Great Plains, very wet regions in the southern Appalachians, cold areas of the lower Rocky Mountains and throughout much of the California Central Valley, forming dense thickets that displace native plants. TOAL4: Toxicodendron altissimum Mill. He further writes (his emphasis): .mw-parser-output .templatequote{overflow:hidden;margin:1em 0;padding:0 40px}.mw-parser-output .templatequote .templatequotecite{line-height:1.5em;text-align:left;padding-left:1.6em;margin-top:0}, For most landscaping conditions, it has no value as there are too many trees of superior quality; for impossible conditions this tree has a place; selection could be made for good habit, strong wood and better foliage which would make the tree more satisfactory; I once talked with an architect who tried to buy Ailanthus for use along polluted highways but could not find an adequate supply [...], In Europe, however, the tree is still used in the garden to some degree as its habit is generally not as invasive as it is in America. [46] Resistance in various plant species has been shown to increase with exposure. [37][38] It is classified as a noxious or invasive plant on National Forest System lands and in many states[39] because its prolific seed production, high germination rates and capacity to regrow from roots and root fragments enable A. altissima[40] to out-compete native species. INVASIVE PLANT Ailanthus altissima is listed as an exotic invasive species to the Midwest by the Midwest Invasive Plant Network and should not be planted in the Midwest. It is possible that the tree is native to these areas, but it is generally agreed that the tree was a very early introduction. Ailanthus rhodoptera F. Muell. Ailanthus altissima resembles native sumac and hickory species, but it is easily distinguished by the glandular, notched base on each leaflet. For more information on plant hardiness zones in Canada, visit Natural Resources Canada. [26] Within China itself it has also been naturalized beyond its native range in areas such as Qinghai, Ningxia and Xinjiang. Populations without prior exposure to the chemicals are most susceptible to them. [7] The bark is smooth and light grey, often becoming somewhat rougher with light tan fissures as the tree ages. [11] The rachis is light to reddish-green with a swollen base. [22] In China it is native to every province except Gansu, Heilongjiang, Hainan, Jilin, Ningxia, Qinghai, Xinjiang, and Tibet. It grows lushly...survives without sun, water, and seemingly earth. Each work favoured a different character, however, and there is still some debate in the Chinese botanical commun… [63][67] In certain parts of the United States, the species has been nicknamed the "ghetto palm" because of its propensity for growing in the inhospitable conditions of urban areas, or on abandoned and poorly maintained properties, such as in war-torn Afghanistan. The petioles are 5–12 mm (0.2-0.5 inch) long. [6], A. altissima is a medium-sized tree that reaches heights between 17 and 27 metres (56 and 89 ft) with a diameter at breast height of about 1 m (40 inches). introduced perennial tree, reproducing by seed and root suckers. [8] The current species name comes from Walter T. Swingle who was employed by the United States Department of Plant Industry. Interestingly, Tree-of-Heaven has another common name — Chinese sumac — which shows how similar these plants look, without closer inspection. Scientific Name; AIGL: Ailanthus glandulosa Desf. Each leaflet has one to three teeth on each side, close to the base. It was mentioned in the oldest extant Chinese dictionary and listed in many Chinese medical texts for its purported curative ability. Ailanthus altissima Common name: Tree of Heaven Symptoms induced in controlled conditions (fumigation with ozone) Fumigation of Ailanthus altissimawith enhanced ozone levels in Open Top Chambers (OTCs) produced a brown interveinal stippling. The tree grows rapidly and is capable of reaching heights of 15 m (50 feet) in 25 years. [45], Ailanthus produces an allelopathic chemical called ailanthone, which inhibits the growth of other plants. Toxicodendron altissimum Mill. The tree is commonly called tree of heaven—from the Ambonese word aylanto (rendered ailanthus in Latin). Furthermore, the male plants emit a foul-smelling odor while flowering to attract pollinating insects. People living near the lower Yellow River know it by the name chunshu (simplified Chinese: 椿树; traditional Chinese: 椿樹; pinyin: chūnshù), meaning "spring tree". There are three varieties of A. altissima: A. altissima is native to northern and central China,[1] Taiwan[23] and northern Korea. Scientific Name: Ailanthus altissima Common name: Tree of Heaven Page 1 of 2 QUESTION COMMENTS REFERENCE RANKING Social 1. Shade considerably hampers growth rates. In China, the tree of heaven has a long and rich history. Click on images of Tree of Heaven to enlarge. 7-13 cm; lamina ca. Higher numbers represent more temperate areas. There are extant records from the 1750s of disputes over the proper name between Philip Miller and John Ellis, curator of Webb's garden in Busbridge. It has smooth stems with pale gray bark, and twigs which are light chestnut brown, especially in the dormant season. After stopping and taking photos of this unknown (to me) plant, I was able to identify it as Tree-of-Heaven (Ailanthus altissima). It is extremely fast-growing and it will grow almost anywhere. The Plants Database includes the following 1 species of Ailanthus . Ailantus rhodoptera F. In Paris, Linnaeus gave the plant the name Rhus succedanea, while it was known commonly as grand vernis du Japon. The website also provides access to a database and images of plants photos and herbarium specimens found at … Deciduous trees, up to 25 m tall; bark smooth and straightly grained; branches with pith, yellow or yellow-brown pubescent when young. He decided to transfer Miller's older specific name into the genus of Desfontaines, resulting in the accepted name Ailanthus altissima. Around the corner, business was brisk at a drug house where residents and customers alike weren’t above casually taking a piss in the driveway. [47] Another experiment showed a water extract of the chemical was either lethal or highly damaging to 11 North American hardwoods and 34 conifers, with the white ash (Fraxinus americana) being the only plant not adversely affected. The museum hired the Detroit Tree of Heaven Woodshop, an artists' collective, to use the wood to create benches, sculptures and other amenities in and around the building. The samara is large and twisted at the tips, making it spin as it falls, assisting wind dispersal,[7][9] and aiding buoyancy for long-distance dispersal through hydrochory. [20], In North America, the leaves of ailanthus are sometimes attacked by Aculops ailanthii, a mite in the family Eriophyidae. Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Stems. This type of silk is known under various names: "pongee", "eri silk" and "Shantung silk", the last name being derived from Shandong Province in China where this silk is often produced. Native of China, introduced into North America in 1784 as an ornamental. The tree's rings were counted, revealing its age to be 75, and museum officials hoped it would regenerate from a sucker. [7] Ailanthus is among the most pollution-tolerant of tree species, including sulfur dioxide, which it absorbs in its leaves. By 2008, the old tree was found to be dying and in danger of crashing into the building, which was about to undergo a major renovation. Studies found that Californian trees grew faster than their East Coast counterparts, and American trees in general grew faster than Chinese ones. [17] Altissima is Latin for "tallest",[18] and refers to the sizes the tree can reach. It involves the application of foliar or basal herbicides in order to kill existing trees, while either hand pulling or mowing seedlings in order to prevent new growth. In North America, A. altissima is present from Massachusetts in the east, west to southern Ontario, southwest to Iowa, south to Texas, and east to the north of Florida. Despite this, it was used extensively as a street tree during much of the 19th century. The same study characterised the tree as using a "gap-obligate" strategy in order to reach the forest canopy, meaning it grows rapidly during a very short period rather than growing slowly over a long period. Its large, compound leaves are arranged alternately on the stem, and can be 30–60 cm long (occasionally up to 1 m long on vigorous young sprouts) and contain 11-33 leaflets, occasionally up to 41 leaflets. [16][63] She writes: There's a tree that grows in Brooklyn. There is also a selection, A. altissima f. erythrocarpa, that produces "bright red seeds". southeastern Central Europe around the Danube river basin from Austria, Slovakia and Hungary south to the Balkan ranges) and most countries of the Mediterranean Basin. It was one of the first trees brought west during a time when chinoiserie was dominating European arts, and was initially hailed as a beautiful garden specimen. Zone 0 covers the harshest areas in Canada for plant species. they are not fused), each containing a single ovule. Ailanthus altissima. (ailanthus) genus and Simaroubaceae (Quassia family). It spreads aggressively both by seeds and vegetatively by root sprouts, re-sprouting rapidly after being cut. It contains a quinone irritant, 2,6-dimethoxybenzoquinone, as well as quassinoids. For the TV show, see, A deciduous tree in the family Simaroubaceae, native to northeast and central China and Taiwan, For a more thorough discussion, see the entry for, 'Tree-of-heaven's prolific seed production adds to its invasive potential', August 2, 2017, Penn State News, Kunst-Werke Institute for Contemporary Art, "Seed Production, Viability, and Reproductive Limits of the Invasive Ailanthus altissima (Tree-of-Heaven) within Invaded Environments", Southern Research Station (, "The toxic Tree of Heaven threatens England's green and pleasant land", "The systematic relationships of glucosinolate-producing plants and related families: a cladistic investigation based on morphological and molecular characters", "Seed viability and dispersal of the wind-dispersed invasive, "Gone with the wind and the stream: Dispersal in the invasive species Ailanthus altissima", "Element Stewardship Abstract for Ailanthus altissima", "Phytogeography and fossil history of Ailanthus (Simaroubaceae)", "Preliminary list of plant invaders in Montenegro", "PGR Forum Crop Wild Relative Catalogue for Europe and the Mediterranean", "City urges residents to report invasive Tree of heaven", 'Tree-of-Heaven an Exotic Invasive Plant Fact Sheet', May 15, 2014, Ecological Landscape Alliance, "The Great Charcoal Debate: Briquettes Or Lumps? It can withstand cement dust and fumes from coal tar operations, as well as resist ozone exposure relatively well. [39], In northern Europe the tree of heaven was not considered naturalised in cities until after the Second World War. [8][12][13] They appear from mid-April in the south of its range to July in the north. Its production is particularly well known in the Yantai region of that province. [1] It is also unable to take dye. Furthermore, one can scold a child by calling him a "good-for-nothing ailanthus stump sprout", meaning the child is irresponsible. Swingle Tree of Heaven. : 'foul smelling tree'), is a deciduous tree in the family Simaroubaceae. The plant is sometimes incorrectly cited with the specific epithet in the masculine (glandulosus or altissimus), which is incorrect since botanical, like Classical Latin, treats most tree names as feminine. The tree had been spared by the sculptor Isamu Noguchi when in 1975 he bought the building which would become the museum and cleaned up its back lot. [39] Growth of one to two metres (3.5-6.5 ft) per year for the first four years is considered normal. It was mentioned again in a materia medica compiled during the Tang dynastyin 656 AD. Tree of heaven is an opportunistic plant that thrives in full sun and disturbed areas. [1] The tree also resprouts vigorously when cut, making its eradication difficult and time-consuming. [5] It is considered a noxious weed and vigorous invasive species,[1] and one of the worst invasive plant species in Europe and North America. Male trees produce three to four times as many flowers as the females, making the male flowers more conspicuous. Leaves infested by the mite begin to curl and become glossy, reducing their ability to function. Techniques have been developed for drying the wood so as to prevent this cracking, allowing it to be commercially harvested. Ailanthus, Chinese sumac, and stinking sumac. It has escaped cultivation in all areas where it was introduced, but most extensively in the United States. He published an article with an illustrated description and gave it the name Ailanthus glandulosa, placing it in the same genus as the tropical species then known as A. integrifolia (white siris, now A. triphysa). [25] In Taiwan it is present as var. U.S. Forest Service Fire Effects Information System: National Invasive Species Information Center: species profile of, United States National Agricultural Library, National Park Service, Plant Conservation Alliance, Alien Plant Working Group: Tree of Heaven (, Cal-IPC/California Invasive Plant Council: plant profile of,, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing Chinese-language text, Articles containing simplified Chinese-language text, Articles containing traditional Chinese-language text, Taxonbars with automatically added basionyms, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 24 November 2020, at 23:54. This includes data values and the controlled vocabularies that house them. Ailanthus altissima. Life Cycle. Ailanthus altissima Other common names: Chinese Sumac, Tree of Heaven Other scientific names: Ailanthus glandulosus, Ailanthus peregrina, Toxicodendron altissimum Wetland Status. [12] It contains phytochemicals, such as quassin and saponin, and ailanthone. The Alabama Plant Atlas is a source of data for the distribution of plants within the state as well as taxonomic, conservation, invasive, and wetland information for each species. small marks where the veins of the leaf once connected to the tree) around the edges. [1] It is native to northeast and central China, and Taiwan. While the species rarely lives more than 50 years, some specimens exceed 100 years of age. [27] The tree has furthermore become unpopular in cultivation in the west because it is short-lived and that the trunk soon becomes hollow, making trees more than two feet in diameter unstable in high winds.[53]. NVS maintains a standard set of species code abbreviations that correspond to standard scientific plant names from the Ngä Tipu o Aotearoa - New Zealand Plants database. Means of eradication can be physical, thermal, managerial, biological or chemical. It proved able to kill nearly 100% of seedlings with the exception of velvetleaf, which showed some resistance. The twigs are stout, smooth to lightly pubescent, and reddish or chestnut in color. The ends of the branches become pendulous. This fast growing tree can reach 80 feet in its relatively short life (50 years). [8] It is also considered a good source of firewood across much of its range as it is moderately hard and heavy, yet readily available. It is drought-hardy, but not tolerant of flooding. [23] It has naturalized across much of Europe, including Germany,[27] Austria, Switzerland, the Czech Republic, the Pannonian region (i.e. The tree is associated with the black prisoner's despair in the face of his impending execution and the spirituals that he sings in chorus with other black people who keep a sort of vigil in the street below: ...they sang spirituals while white people slowed and stopped in the leafed darkness that was almost summer, to listen to those who were sure to die and him who was already dead singing about heaven and being tired; or perhaps in the interval between songs a rich, sourceless voice coming out of the high darkness where the ragged shadow of the heaven-tree which snooded the street lamp at the corner fretted and mourned: "Fo days mo! The individual flowers are yellowish green to reddish in color, each with five petals and sepals. Common Name: tree-of-Heaven, tree-that-grows-in-Brooklyn. : Certain sensitive individuals have found contact with plant parts to cause skin irritation and rashes. The Linked Data Service provides access to commonly found standards and vocabularies promulgated by the Library of Congress. Zhejiang Province in eastern China is most famous for producing these steamers. The name stems from the fact that A. altissima is one of the last trees to come out of dormancy, and as such its leaves coming out would indicate that winter was truly over. It has colonized natural areas in Hungary, for example, and is considered a threat to biodiversity at that country's Aggtelek National Park. [7][23] In the east of its range it grows most extensively in disturbed areas of cities, where it was long ago present as a planted street tree. The leaflets are ovate-lanceolate with entire margins, somewhat asymmetric and occasionally not directly opposite to each other. The plant belongs to Ailanthus Desf. Later scholars associated this tree with ailanthus and applied the metaphor to children who, like stump sprouts of the tree, will not develop into a worthwhile human being if they don't follow rules or traditions.[62]. All parts of the plant have a distinguishing strong odor that is often likened to peanuts, cashews,[9] or rotting cashews.[10]. Their styles are united and slender with star-shaped stigmas. Scientific Name: Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Family Name: Simaroubaceae - Quassia Family. [24] In addition, the warmer microclimate in cities offers a more suitable habitat than the surrounding rural areas (it is thought that the tree requires a mean annual temperature of 8 degrees Celsius to grow well, which limits its spread in more northern and higher altitude areas). : Introduction: [8][16] The specific glandulosa, referring to the glands on the leaves, persisted until as late as 1957, but it was ultimately made invalid as a later homonym at the species level. [66], Ailanthus is also sometimes counter-nicknamed "tree from hell" due to its prolific invasiveness and the difficulty in eradicating it. Ailanthus altissima Common name(s): Tree-of-Heaven The Tree-of-Heaven is native to northern China where it has a rich history dating back hundreds of years. [61], In addition to the tree of heaven's various uses, it has also been a part of Chinese culture for many centuries and has more recently attained a similar status in the west. [24], Several species of Lepidoptera utilise the leaves of ailanthus as food, including the Indian moon moth (Actias selene) and the common grass yellow (Eurema hecabe). Ailanthus: from ailanto, an Indonesian name for A. molucuanna or A. intergrifolia, meaning Tree of Heaven, or 'Reaching for the Sky', referring to tree height. [44] It is a short lived tree in any location and rarely lives more than 50 years. Unlike other members of the genus Ailanthus, it is found in temperate climates rather than the tropics. [14] Primary wind dispersal and secondary water dispersal are usually positively correlated in A. altissima since most morphological characteristics of samaras affect both dispersal modes in the same way – except for the width of the samaras, which in contrast affects both types of dispersal in opposing ways, allowing differentiation in the dispersal strategies of this tree. Scientific Name: Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) [1] Prolonged cold and snow cover cause dieback, although the trees resprout from the roots. D'Incarville had sent seeds from Peking via Siberia to his botanist friend Bernard de Jussieu in the 1740s. The flowers are small and appear in large panicles up to 50 cm (20 in) in length at the end of new shoots. Native to China, non-native in U.S. No matter where its seed falls, it makes a tree which struggles to reach the sky. Therefore, this species has been proposed as a possible biocontrol for ailanthus in the Americas. ", "Penn State Scientists: Tree of Heaven Really Isn't", "A Tree That Survived a Sculptor's Chisel Is Chopped Down". In the United Kingdom it is especially common in London squares, streets, and parks, though it is also frequently found in gardens of southern England and East Anglia. Within the oldest extant Chinese dictionary, the Erya, written in the 3rd century BC, the tree of heaven is mentioned second among a list of trees. 30-50 cm long; petiolules ca. Swingle: Common Name: TREE-OF-HEAVEN: Coefficient of Conservatism: * Coefficient of Wetness: 5 Wetness Index: UPL Physiognomy: Ad Tree. Family: Simaroubaceae. "[I]n a sense, the sculpture garden was designed around the tree", said a former aide to Noguchi, Bonnie Rychlak, who later became the museum curator. The name is derived from the Ambonese word ailanto, meaning "heaven-tree" or "tree reaching for the sky". Sugar Snap) and maize (Zea mays cv. [8] The fruits grow in clusters; a fruit cluster may contain hundreds of seeds. Festive Victorian-era homes in various stages of restoration battled for supremacy with boarded-up firetraps and overgrown lots landscaped with weeds, garbage, and “ghetto palms,” a particularly hardy invasive species known more formally as Ailanthus altissima, or the tree of heaven, perhaps because only God can kill the things. Toxicodendron altissimumMill. [23] The roots are poisonous to people. currently features 3816 plants and 23,855 images. Rather than the issue being resolved, more names soon appeared for the plant: Jakob Friedrich Ehrhart observed a specimen in Utrecht in 1782 and named it Rhus cacodendron.[8]. Native Introduced Native and Introduced. [46] The inhibitors are strongest in the bark and roots, but are also present in the leaves, wood and seeds of the plant. [20] It was once very popular in cultivation in both Europe and North America, but this popularity dropped, especially in the United States, due to the disagreeable odor of its blossoms and the weediness of its habit. [20] The tree of heaven is found within a wide range of climatic conditions. The tree was first brought from China to Europe in the 1740s and to the United States in 1784. Click below on a thumbnail map or name for species profiles. [8], The pale yellow, close-grained and satiny wood of ailanthus has been used in cabinet work. Tree-of-Heaven, foliage - Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Resource Management. D'Incarville attached a note indicating this, which caused much taxonomic confusion over the next few decades. [7] In China it is often found in limestone-rich areas. [70], Ingo Vetter, a German artist and professor of fine arts at Umeå University in Sweden, was influenced by the idea of the "ghetto palm" and installed a living ailanthus tree taken from Detroit for an international art show called Shrinking Cities at the Kunst-Werke Institute for Contemporary Art in Berlin in 2004. At that time as well as now, ailanthus was common in neglected urban areas. Flowers Species is dioecious (separate male and female plants) and flowering occurs in early summer when large clusters of small yellow flowers on 20 inch long stems develop above the foliage. Common Name: Tree of Heaven. [20], In 1784, not long after Jussieu had sent seeds to England, some were forwarded to the United States by William Hamilton, a gardener in Philadelphia. [50] In its native range A. altissima is associated with at least 32 species of arthropods and 13 species of fungi. Older trees, while growing much slower, still do so faster than other trees. Outside Europe and the United States, the plant has been spread to many other areas beyond its native range, and is considered internationally as a noxious weed. Each work favoured a different character, however, and there is still some debate in the Chinese botanical community as to which character should be used. Den dey ghy stroy de bes ba'yton singer in nawth Mississippi! They have lenticels as well as heart-shaped leaf scars (i.e. It has now naturalized throughout much of the United States. Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) [7], The earliest introductions of A. altissima to countries outside of its native range were to the southern areas of Korea and to Japan. [1], The tree prefers moist and loamy soils, but is adaptable to a very wide range of soil conditions and pH values. [4] Its suckering ability makes it possible for this tree to clone itself indefinitely. Some people call it the Tree of Heaven. [48] The chemical does not, however, affect the tree of heaven's own seedlings, indicating that A. altissima has a defence mechanism to prevent autotoxicity. Hardiness zones are based largely on climate, particularly minimum temperatures. For example, the city of Basel in Switzerland has an eradication program for the tree. Ailanthus altissima tree of heaven Legal Status. [23], Ailanthus has been used to re-vegetate areas where acid mine drainage has occurred and it has been shown to tolerate pH levels as low as 4.1 (approximately that of tomato juice). When they emerge in the spring, the leaves are bronze then quickly turn from medium to dark green as they grow. [8] The leaflets' upper sides are dark green in color with light green veins, while the undersides are a more whitish green. This fast growing tree can reach 80 feet in its relatively short life (50 years). [35] Similarly, another study conducted in southwestern Virginia determined that the tree of heaven is thriving along approximately 30% of the state's interstate highway system length or mileage. The National Vegetation Survey (NVS) Databank is a physical archive and electronic databank containing records of over 94,000 vegetation survey plots - including data from over 19,000 permanent plots. glandulosa Desf.. A large, deciduous, often unisexual tree, frequently 50 to 70 ft, rarely loo ft high, with a trunk 2 to 3 ft in diameter, and a rounded head of branches. A fast growing deciduous tree from China can grow 20m or more. The problem of odor was previously avoided by only selling pistillate plants since only males produce the smell, but a higher seed production also results. Tree of heaven Tree-of-heaven, commonly referred to as Ailanthus altissima, is a rapidly growing deciduous tree native to a region extending from northern and central China, Taiwan and northern Korea to Australia. var. [61] The plant may be mildly toxic. Ailanthus altissima Common name(s): Tree-of-Heaven The Tree-of-Heaven is native to northern China where it has a rich history dating back hundreds of years.