The genes involved in canine obsessive-compulsive disorders led to the detection of four genes in humans' related pathways. Characteristics of loyalty, friendship, protectiveness, and affection have earned dogs an important position in Western society, and in the United States and Europe the care and feeding of dogs has become a multibillion-dollar business. [88] Dogs can read and react appropriately to human body language such as gesturing and pointing and human voice commands. The coat can be maintained or affected by multiple nutrients present in the diet; see Coat (dog) for more information. The domestic dog: Its evolution, behaviour and interactions with people. However, it has been disputed that "trying to achieve status" is characteristic of dog-human interactions. Some research suggests that a pet dog produces a considerable carbon footprint. [143], It is estimated that three-quarters of the world's dog population lives in the developing world as feral, village, or community dogs, with pet dogs uncommon. [35][36][37], The coats of domestic dogs are of two varieties: "double" being familiar with dogs (as well as wolves) originating from colder climates, made up of a coarse guard hair and a soft down hair, or "single," with the topcoat only. Everything and Anything Dog. CIBIO. [93], Dog behavior is the internally coordinated responses (actions or inactions) of the domestic dog (individuals or groups) to internal and external stimuli. [202], The health benefits of dogs can result from contact with dogs in general, not solely from having dogs as pets. Dog, (Canis lupus familiaris), domestic mammal of the family Canidae (order Carnivora). The Eurasian branch was called Tomarctus and is the progenitor of wolves, dogs, and foxes. Human guardians are significantly less likely to die within one year of an acute myocardial infarction than those who did not own dogs. fricator Gmelin, 1792, Find everything you need online to care for your dog at PetSmart. [109][110] Although wolves are known to kill dogs, they tend to live in pairs or in small packs in areas where they are highly persecuted, giving them a disadvantage facing large dog groups. [60], In 2013, a study found that mixed breed dogs live on average 1.2 years longer than purebred dogs. Humans communicate to dogs by using vocalization, hand signals, and body posture. [187], In the United States, cats and dogs are a factor in more than 86,000 falls each year. [17] Dogs are predators and scavengers; like many other predatory mammals, the dog has powerful muscles, large and sharp claws and teeth, fused wrist bones, a cardiovascular system that supports both sprinting and endurance, and teeth for catching and tearing. [2] Linnaeus considered the dog to be a separate species from the wolf because of its cauda recurvata - its upturning tail, which is not found in any other canid. [215], In ancient Mesopotamia, from the Old Babylonian period until the Neo-Babylonian, dogs were the symbol of Ninisina, the goddess of healing and medicine,[216] and her worshippers frequently dedicated small models of seated dogs to her. [137] Camp dogs would also have benefited from human tool use, bringing down larger prey and controlling fire for various purposes. dog - Children's Encyclopedia (Ages 8-11), dog - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). Can someone answer it? [208] One study demonstrated that children with ADHD and conduct disorders who participated in an education program with dogs and other animals showed increased attendance, increased knowledge and skill objectives, and decreased antisocial and violent behavior compared with those not in an animal-assisted program. Paleontologists and archaeologists have determined that about 60 million years ago a small mammal, rather like a weasel, lived in the environs of what are now parts of Asia. [220] In Philippine mythology, Kimat, the pet of Tadaklan, the god of thunder, is responsible for lightning. [83] Outcrossing between unrelated individuals, including dogs of different breeds, results in the beneficial masking of deleterious recessive mutations in progeny. [65] The median longevity of mixed-breed dogs, taken as an average of all sizes, is one or more years longer than that of purebred dogs when all breeds are averaged. glaucus C. E. H. Smith, 1839, There are different studies that suggest that this happened between 15.000 and 100.000 years before our time. [206], Using dogs and other animals as a part of therapy dates back to the late 18th century when animals were introduced into mental institutions to help socialize patients with mental disorders. obesus Gmelin, 1792, Especially over the past 200 years, dogs have undergone rapid phenotypic change and were formed into today's modern dog breeds due to artificial selection by humans. [1] In 2020, a literature review of canid domestication stated that modern dogs were not descended from the same Canis lineage as modern wolves, and proposes that dogs may be descended from a Pleistocene wolf closer in size to a village dog. The dog's role in Chinese mythology includes a position as one of the twelve animals that cyclically represent years (the zodiacal dog). Notable exceptions once included: Dogs were introduced to Antarctica as sled dogs but were later outlawed by international agreement due to the possible risk of spreading infections. They are mammals that bear live young. [96][97] In 2016, a study found that only 11 fixed genes showed variation between wolves and dogs. [52] The dog has developed into hundreds of varied breeds and shows more behavioral and morphological variation than any other land mammal. ", In 1758, the Swedish botanist and zoologist Carl Linnaeus published in his Systema Naturae the binomial nomenclature – or the two-word naming – of species. [183], A Colorado study found bites in children were less severe than bites in adults. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. avicularis Gmelin, 1792, [189], Toxocara canis (dog roundworm) eggs in dog feces can cause toxocariasis. [200], A 2005 paper states, "recent research has failed to support earlier findings that pet ownership is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, a reduced use of general practitioner services, or any psychological or physical benefits on health for community dwelling older people. Dog food for every type of dog. Earlier studies have shown that people who keep pet dogs or cats exhibit better mental and physical health than those who do not, making fewer visits to the doctor and being less likely to be on medication than non-guardians. [27], Domestic dogs inherited complex behaviors, such as bite inhibition, from their wolf ancestors, which would have been pack hunters with complex body language. Yama, the First Man, and King of the Dead", "Dogs and Islam: The Devil and the Seeing-Eye Dog", "Dogs Have Their Day: AKC Dog Museum Opens In New York City", Biodiversity Heritage Library bibliography, Fédération Cynologique Internationale (FCI) – World Canine Organisation,, Extant Late Pleistocene first appearances, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from September 2010, Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, All Wikipedia articles written in American English, Articles with failed verification from April 2016, Taxonbars using multiple manual Wikidata items, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Individual Pacific islands whose maritime settlers did not bring dogs, or where dogs died out after original settlement, notably: the. “Outside of a dog, a book is a man’s best friend. Miacis did not leave direct descendants, but doglike canids evolved from it. For parents, large wire dog crates are also a place to put your friend when you’re away or housetraining. New York: Columbia University Press, 2008, page 1, Elliot, D.G., and M. Wong. Moreover, children have a much higher chance of being bitten in the face or neck. [182] In the 1980s and 1990s, the U.S. averaged 17 fatalities per year, while since 2007, this has increased to an average of 31. This fence comes in four different heights - 24-inch, … [199] It found that "the health of elderly people is related to their health habits and social supports but not to their ownership of, or attachment to, a companion animal." Everything you need to know about dogs, including dog breeds, how to adopt a dog, bringing a dog home, dog health and care, and more! [19] Dogs vary widely in shape, size, and colors. Find another word for dog. [140], Human emigrants from Siberia that came across the Bering land bridge into North America likely had dogs in their company. [85] Another analysis of data on 42,855 dachshund litters found that as the inbreeding coefficient increased, litter size decreased, and the percentage of stillborn puppies increased, thus indicating inbreeding depression. What kind of dog breed should you get? [82] Inbreeding depression is considered to be due mainly to the expression of homozygous deleterious recessive mutations. Although one writer[141] even suggests that sled dogs' use may have been critical to the success of the waves that entered North America roughly 12,000 years ago,[141] the earliest archaeological evidence of dog-like canids in North America dates from about 9,400 years ago. [186], In the U.K., between 2003 and 2004, there were 5,868 dog attacks on humans, resulting in 5,770 working days lost in sick leave. As members of the upper classes shunned dog meat, it gradually became a social taboo to eat it, even though the general population continued to consume it for centuries afterward. [153] Pet dogs play an active role in family life; for example, a study of conversations in dog-human families showed how family members use the dog as a resource, talking to the dog, or talking through the dog; to mediate their interactions with each other. [78] However, neutering increases the risk of urinary incontinence in female dogs,[79] and prostate cancer in males,[80] and osteosarcoma, hemangiosarcoma, cruciate ligament rupture, obesity, and diabetes mellitus in either sex. [7][8][9][10][11] The dog and the extant gray wolf are sister taxa as modern wolves are not closely related to the wolves that were first domesticated,[12][13][14] which implies that the direct ancestor of the dog is extinct. Fossil remains suggest that five distinct types of dogs existed by the beginning of the Bronze Age (about 4500 bce). [149] Some dog-trainers, such as on the television program Dog Whisperer, have promoted a dominance-model of dog-human relationships. Canis lupus familiaris Linnaeus, 1758[2][3] Theobromine is toxic to dogs because, although the dog's metabolism is capable of breaking down the chemical, the process is so slow that for some dogs, even small amounts of chocolate can be fatal, mostly dark chocolate. An immature male or female (that is, an animal not yet capable of reproduction) is a. Which sense does a dog lack? [180], Citing a 2008 study, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control estimated in 2015 that 4.5 million people in the USA are bitten by dogs each year. fuillus Gmelin, 1792, familiaris) occurring as a wide variety of breeds, many of which are traditionally used for hunting, herding, drawing sleds, and other tasks, and are kept as pets. Pet-dog populations grew significantly after World War II as suburbanization increased. "[197] In one study, new guardians reported a highly significant reduction in minor health problems during the first month following pet acquisition. plancus Gmelin, 1792, [90], Dogs demonstrate a theory of mind by engaging in deception. [17] Other types of working dogs include search and rescue dogs,[160] detection dogs trained to detect illicit drugs[161] or chemical weapons;[162] guard dogs; dogs who assist fishermen with the use of nets; and dogs that pull loads. [171] Following the Sui and Tang dynasties of the first millennium, however, people living on northern China's plains began to eschew eating dogs, which is likely due to Buddhism and Islam's spread, two religions that forbade the consumption of certain animals, including dog. Dogs are also susceptible to parasites such as fleas, ticks, mites, hookworms, tapeworms, roundworms, and heartworms (roundworm species that lives in the heart of dogs). Some other symptoms are abdominal pain, loss of coordination, collapse, or death. 3. Pet Tech. In some cultures, however, dogs are also a source of meat. [108], Although dogs are the most abundant and widely distributed terrestrial carnivores, feral, and free-ranging dogs' potential to compete with other large carnivores is limited by their strong association with humans. Dogs are just natural comedians. [201], People with pet dogs took considerably more physical exercise than those with cats and those without pets. These dogs, found in Africa, might have given rise to some of the present native African breeds. laniarius Gmelin, 1792, Domestic dogs consider dog crates, to be their den. [65], The longest-lived breeds, including toy poodles, Japanese spitz, Border terriers, and Tibetan spaniels, have median longevities of 14 to 15 years. A domesticated carnivorous mammal (Canis familiaris syn. Several human foods and household ingestibles are toxic to dogs, including chocolate solids (theobromine poisoning), onion and garlic (thiosulphate, sulfoxide or disulfide poisoning),[55] grapes and raisins, macadamia nuts, xylitol,[56] as well as various plants and other potentially ingested materials. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. [150] The list of goods, services, and places available is enormous: from dog perfumes, couture, furniture, and housing, to dog groomers, therapists, trainers and caretakers, dog cafes, spas, parks and beaches, and dog hotels, airlines, and cemeteries. Signs can be vomiting of large amounts (e.g., from eating cigar butts) or diarrhea. Vairão, Portugal, 28th - 30th May 2019", "Animal domestication in the era of ancient genomics", "The History of Farm Foxes Undermines the Animal Domestication Syndrome", "Guinness World Records – Tallest Dog Living", "Cryptochrome 1 in Retinal Cone Photoreceptors Suggests a Novel Functional Role in Mammals", Magnetoreception molecule found in the eyes of dogs and primates, "Anxiety and impulsivity: Factors associated with premature graying in young dogs", "Bourbonnais pointer or 'short tail pointer, "Origins of the dog: domestication and early history", "Can orbital angle morphology distinguish dogs from wolves? [123], However, the dog is not merely an omnivore. Acid phosphatase, handy enzyme that separates the dog from the wolf. terrarius C. E. H. Smith, 1839, Dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) are domesticated mammals, not natural wild animals. Top-dogs and under-dogs: competition between dogs and sympatric carnivores. An adult male capable of reproduction is a. [134]:104[142] Dogs were an important part of life for the Athabascan population in North America and were their only domesticated animal. Neutering reduces problems caused by hypersexuality, especially in male dogs. The first has been the "commodification," shaping it to conform to social expectations of personality and behavior. He had learned the names and could associate by verbal command over 1,000 words. hagenbecki Krumbiegel, 1950, aquaticus Linnaeus, 1758, [117], Dogs have been described as carnivores[118][119] or omnivores. borealis C. E. H. Smith, 1839, Holiday goodies for every pup. Dogs are found in and out of the Muthappan Temple, and offerings at the shrine take the form of bronze dog figurines. [33] The tallest dog is a Great Dane that stands 106.7 cm (3 ft 6 in) at the shoulder. [203] Other health benefits are gained from exposure to immune-stimulating microorganisms, which can protect against allergies and autoimmune diseases according to the hygiene hypothesis. Some dog breeds have acquired traits through selective breeding that interfere with reproduction. [181] A 2015 study estimated that 1.8% of the U.S. population is bitten each year. [91] An experimental study showed compelling evidence that Australian dingos can outperform domestic dogs in non-social problem-solving, indicating that domestic dogs may have lost much of their original problem-solving abilities once they joined humans. [43] Compared with equally sized wolves, dogs tend to have 20% smaller skulls and 30% smaller brains. Choosing dog breeds based on your lifestyle is the most important factor when adopting a puppy. [47] Most dogs lack a functioning pre-caudal gland and enter estrus twice yearly, unlike gray wolves, which only do so once a year. [49], Dogs generally have brown eyes, and wolves almost always have amber or light-colored eyes. 2. This period represents the upper time-limit for domestication commencement because it is the time of divergence and not the time of domestication, which occurred later. [138] The relationship between a dog's presence and success in the hunt is often mentioned as a primary reason for the domestication of the wolf, and a 2004 study of hunter groups with and without a dog gives quantitative support to the hypothesis that the benefits of cooperative hunting were an essential factor in wolf domestication. Use our Dog Breed Selector to determine which breed is the best fit for you and your lifestyle. Find cheap collars, beds, crates & more! Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). [170] In China, debates have ensued over banning the consumption of dog meat. Other genetic studies, however, have suggested that dog domestication began as early as 18,800–32,100 years ago in Europe or that early dogs dating from about 12,000 to 14,000 years ago came from a small strain of gray wolf that inhabited what is now India. The hunter god Muthappan from the North Malabar region of Kerala has a hunting dog as his mount. [223] Jewish law requires Jews to feed dogs (and other animals that they own) before themselves and make arrangements for feeding them before obtaining them. Free Shipping worldwide! Welcome to the new WebMD Dog Health Center. Serpell J, Duffy D. Dog Breeds and Their Behavior. They have been bred by humans for a long time, and were the first animals ever to be domesticated. Based on metabolism and nutrition, many consider the dog to be an omnivore. View our complete dog breed profiles to get a better understanding of expected temperament, character, care and exercise requirements. [192][193][194][195], Dogs suffer from the same common disorders as humans; these include cancer, diabetes, heart disease, and neurologic disorders. No matter what their origins, all canids have certain common characteristics. scoticus Gmelin, 1792, They will experience subsequent estrous cycles semiannually, during which the body prepares for pregnancy. This effect was sustained in those with dogs through to the end of the study. leoninus Gmelin, 1792, Can insect pet food cut dogs' carbon pawprint? In: Domestic Dog Cognition and Behavior. In general, toy dogs produce from one to four puppies in each litter, while much larger breeds may average as many as twelve. Followers of the custom claim this is done to ensure good health by balancing one's gi or the body's vital energy. Spaying or castrating dogs helps keep overpopulation down. Still, several breeds, including miniature bull terriers, bloodhounds, and Irish wolfhounds are nearly as short-lived, with median longevities of 6 to 7 years. Dog definition is - canid; especially : a highly variable domestic mammal (Canis familiaris) closely related to the gray wolf. "[224] Therefore, Sunni Malaki and Hanafi jurists permit the trade of and keeping of dogs as pets.[225]. [97] Traits of high sociability and lack of fear in dogs may include genetic modifications related to Williams-Beuren syndrome in humans, which cause hyper sociability at the expense of problem-solving ability.[100][101][102]. alco C. E. H. Smith, 1839, Animal-assisted interventions in mental health: Definitions and theoretical foundations, In Fine, A.H. [135][136], Wolves, and their dog descendants, likely derived significant benefits from living in human camps – more safety, more reliable food, lesser caloric needs, and more chance to breed. [39], There are many different shapes for dog tails: straight, straight up, sickle, curled, or cork-screw. Dogs are also vulnerable to some of the same health conditions as humans, including diabetes, dental and heart disease, epilepsy, cancer, hypothyroidism, and arthritis. Dog communication is how dogs convey information to other dogs, understand messages from humans, and translate the information that dogs are transmitting. [17][120][121][122] Compared to wolves, dogs from agricultural societies have extra copies of amylase and other genes involved in starch digestion that contribute to an increased ability to thrive on a starch-rich diet. It is also possible that some of the dogs of today descended not from the wolf but rather from the jackal. extrarius Gmelin, 1792, Many more are confined to cages in shelters because there are many more animals than there are homes. [115] Tigers in Manchuria, Indochina, Indonesia, and Malaysia are also reported to kill dogs. Although several programs promote pet adoption, less than a fifth of the owned dogs come from shelters. [151] Dog training books, classes, and television programs proliferated as the process of commodifying the pet dog continued. The domestication of dogs may have been one of the key forces that led to human success. In addition to dogs' role as companion animals, dogs have been bred for herding livestock (collies, sheepdogs),[159][17] hunting (hounds, pointers),[44] and rodent control (terriers). 73 synonyms of dog from the Merriam-Webster Thesaurus, plus 119 related words, definitions, and antonyms. sanguinarius C. E. H. Smith, 1839, variegatus Gmelin, 1792, [25], In 2019, a workshop hosted by the IUCN/Species Survival Commission's Canid Specialist Group considered the New Guinea singing dog and the dingo to be feral dogs Canis familiaris, and therefore should not be assessed for the IUCN Red List. A study of another border collie, "Chaser," documented his learning and memory capabilities. This page was last edited on 27 November 2020, at 22:51. ", "The Politics of Dog – When globalization and culinary practice clash", Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, "Dog bites have risen in number and severity since the 1980s", "Study: Chihuahuas bite vets most; Lhaso Apsos inflict worst injuries", "Incidence of dog bite injuries treated in emergency departments", "Capnocytophaga canimorsus Mycotic Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm: Why the Mailman Is Afraid of Dogs", "Parasites in pet feces cause puzzling infections", "Related factors to human toxocariasis in a rural community of Argentina", "Human toxocariasis: A report of 3 cases", "Dog10K: An international sequencing effort to advance studies of canine domestication, phenotypes, and health", "Pet ownership and human health: A brief review of evidence and issues", "Positive and Negative Aspects of Our Relationship with Companion Animals", "Health effects of ownership of and attachment to companion animals in an older population", "Health benefits and health cost savings due to pets: preliminary estimates from an Australian national survey", "Beneficial effects of pet ownership on some aspects of human health and behaviour", "The Pet Factor – Companion Animals as a Conduit for Getting to Know People, Friendship Formation and Social Support", "Indian Myth and Legend: Chapter III. In ancient Egypt during the days of the pharaohs, dogs were considered to be sacred. Dogs are regarded differently in different parts of the world. San Diego, CA, Academic Press: 21–38. [87] Stillbirth was the most frequent cause of death, followed by infection. Dry Dog Food. pacificus C. E. H. Smith, 1839, Dogs, like most mammals, have body hair and are homeothermic—that is to say, they have an internal thermostat that permits them to maintain their body temperature at a constant level despite the outside temperature. The early breeds had erect ears and pointed or wedge-shaped muzzles, similar to the northern breeds common today. sibiricus Gmelin, 1792, The smallest known adult dog was a Yorkshire Terrier, that stood only 6.3 centimetres (2 1⁄2 inches) at the shoulder, 9.5 cm (3 3⁄4 in) in length along the head-and-body, and weighed only 113 grams (4 ounces). Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. [216] In the Neo-Assyrian and Neo-Babylonian periods, dogs were used as emblems of magical protection. Humans have bred a wide range of different dogs adapted to serve a variety of functions. A genetic study examining the migration of dogs to the Americas revealed evidence that dogs did not accompany the first humans to the New World more than 15,000 years ago; the study suggested that dogs came to the Americas only 10,000 years ago. This influence on human society has given them the sobriquet of "man's best friend. A pack leader is an alpha. [152], The majority of contemporary dog owners describe their pet as part of the family,[149] although some ambivalence about the relationship is evident in the popular reconceptualization of the dog-human family as a pack. ", "China bans dog meat at infamous Yulin festival", "7,000 Years of the Dog: A History of China's Canine Companions", "Polish couple accused of making dog meat delicacy", "Wok The Dog – What's wrong with eating man's best friend? [92] Another study revealed that after undergoing training to solve a simple manipulation task, dogs faced with an insoluble version of the same problem look at the human, while socialized wolves do not. Also offers search of Yellow Pages and White Pages. Through the most rudimentary form of genetic engineering, dogs were bred to accentuate instincts that were evident from their earliest encounters with humans. turcicus Gmelin, 1792, [40] In some breeds, such as the Braque du Bourbonnais, puppies can be born with a short tail or no tail at all. Find in-store pet services like Grooming, … Studies of two dogs suggest that dogs can learn by inference and have advanced memory skills. [222], Jewish law does not prohibit keeping dogs and other pets. Tag us your customer show! fricatrix Linnaeus, 1758, Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. [18] Behavioral scientists have uncovered a surprising set of social-cognitive abilities in the domestic dog. While the dishes are still prevalent in Korea with a segment of the population, dog is not as widely consumed as beef, chicken, and pork. [156][157], A study using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to compare humans and dogs showed that dogs have the same response to voices and use the same parts of the brain as humans do. If you are looking for a simple and cheap portable dog fence then this is the solution for you - as long as you have a very small dog. In the developing world, dogs are more commonly feral or communally owned, with pet dogs uncommon. In: Gompper, M.E. Cultural depictions of dogs in art extend back thousands of years to when dogs were portrayed on caves' walls. [34], The dog's senses include vision, hearing, smell, taste, touch and sensitivity to the earth's magnetic field. Coppinger R, Schneider R: Evolution of working dogs. [215] In Norse mythology, a bloody, four-eyed dog called Garmr guards Helheim. If you want quality dog supplies at great prices, shop's selection of clearance dog supplies. (2006). [97][99] Some of these genes have been associated with aggression in some dog breeds, indicating their importance in both the initial domestication and later in breed formation. [201] Pet guardianship has also been associated with increased coronary artery disease survival. Some breeds demonstrate outstanding skills in herding, retrieving, scent detection, and guarding, demonstrating the functional and behavioral diversity of dogs. Over the millennia Cynodictis gave rise to two branches, one in Africa and the other in Eurasia. [149] The second has been the broadening of the family's concept and the home to include dogs-as-dogs within everyday routines and practices. aprinus Gmelin, 1792, hirsutus Gmelin, 1792, dog is a command-line DNS client, like dig.It has colourful output, understands normal command-line argument syntax, supports the DNS-over-TLS … [196], The scientific evidence is mixed as to whether a dog's companionship can enhance human physical health and psychological well-being. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp. terraenovae C. E. H. Smith, 1839, Many normal dog behaviors such as barking, jumping up, digging, rolling in dung, fighting, and urine marking (which dogs do to establish territory through scent) became increasingly incompatible with a pet dog's new role. suillus C. E. H. Smith, 1839, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2014, Almada RC, Coimbra NC. minor Gmelin, 1792, The term dog typically is applied to the species (or subspecies) as a whole, and any adult male member of the same. Primarily heard in UK, Australia. According to the Humane Society of the United States, 3–4 million dogs and cats are euthanized each year. [67][68], In domestic dogs, sexual maturity happens around six to twelve months of age for both males and females,[17][69] although this can be delayed until up to two years old for some large breeds, and is the time at which female dogs will have their first estrous cycle. [29], The genetic divergence between dogs and wolves occurred between 20,000 and 40,000 years ago, just before or during the Last Glacial Maximum[30][1] (20,000–27,000 years ago).