Reducing fat intake tends to lower the risk of heart disease. Depending on the nature or your research, these will probably be related to: The skill in writing a successful discussion is in moving backwards and forwards between others' research and your own research, making it clear: Remember that you are dealing with three different issues and the three must be clearly differentiated for the reader. That includes avoiding language that implies causality when your study can only make relational conclusions. Indicate whether the hypothesis is supported or not. Headings and subheadings, as well as directions to the reader, are forms of signposting you can use to make these chapters easy to navigate. As well as giving your own interpretations, make sure to relate your results back to the scholarly work that you surveyed in the literature review. The blog post explains how to write discussion section of your paper. If your results differ from others' findings, you should try to explain why, says Nolen-Hoeksema. Our resources will help you with everything from reading to note-taking, and time management to exams. Some researchers suggest that reducing fat intake lowers the risk of heart disease. Are your findings very different from other studies? The results of experiments are almost always presented separately from discussion. DO: Provide context and explain why people should care. The discussion of findings is often considered one of the most important part of thesis project/research work in the sense that, this is where the researcher of a project topic presents the underlying findings of his research. Authorised by: Chief Marketing Officer, Strategic Marketing and Communications. For more detailed guidance, we have an excellent handbook titled Write a convincing discussion section – The key to journal acceptance. You could try highlighting key words, or identifying any points that need further investigation. Point out the agreements and disagreements between your data and that of others. Use the first person to describe your findings. The effects of the major operating variables on the performance of the pilot filters are explained, and various implications for design are discussed. Another aspect of making clear the contribution of your research is to draw out the implications of your findings. If so, what do they add to it? If you have nothing to write, write 'I have nothing to write'. In this section, your findings should be the focus, rather than those of other researchers. The difficulty in dating this archeological site. Tell us how the findings are important or relevant based on the aim and scope of your study. Sage Publications. How to write the Discussion section of a scientific research paper. Instructions: Click on the text below to identify the location element, summary and highlighting statement. Write down all the things you know now that you didn't know when you started the research. What are the key concepts you have used in this study? Advancing psychology to benefit society and improve lives. University assignments are a big challenge, but we can guide you. Presenting new results; such data belong in the results section. In a traditional doctoral thesis, this will consist of a number of chapters where you present the data that forms the basis of your investigation, shaped by the way you have thought about it. What do your data say? Going overboard on limitations, leading readers to wonder why they should read on. ", Roediger agrees: "Conclude the general discussion with a strong paragraph stating the main point or points again, in somewhat different terms-if possible-than used before.". Ideally, you will have written them down as they came to you. How to Write a Better Thesis (2nd ed.). the incorrect calibration of the instruments. "However, this will make your dissertation seem like it has raised more questions than it answers.". Indicate the degree of probability (note how the claim progressively weakens): Reducing fat intake lowers the risk of heart disease. "It is easy to get caught up in the desire to be extremely comprehensive and to bring up every potential issue, flaw, future direction and tangentially related concept," says Sackett. The reporting of qualitative data is much less bound by convention than that of quantitative data. "Too often I am left excited not by what was in the dissertation, but by what was not in the dissertation. In shorter dissertations, it might make sense to have both of these comprise one section. It is the last part of your paper, in which you summarize your findings in light of the current literature. Golden-Biddle, K., & Locke, K. (1997). DO: Emphasize the positive. The discussion is the meaty part of your Findings report and can be of great value to your audience if written appropriately. It must be in whole sentences and you must not stop. (2004). For a good structure and organization of your research’s discussion and conclusion, keep in mind these aspects: 1. For this age group , reducing fat intake lowers the risk of heart disease. In this chapter the results will be analyzed via thematic content analysis within the context of the literature reviewed in chapter two. Each chapter needs an introduction outlining its organisation. Rather, it's the time to pull back and take a fresh look at your work. The presentation of results from experimental studies will be different again. 2. 3. It is important that everything in this last section is based off of the results of the data analysis. "If your study was not a true experiment, replace verbs that imply causation with words and phrases such as 'correlated with,' 'was associated with' and 'related to,'" write John Cone, PhD, and Sharon Foster, PhD, in a forthcoming revision of "Dissertations and Theses from Start to Finish" (APA, 2006). DON'T: Exaggerate. By exploring those kinds of implications, students address what Scholl considers the most important-and often overlooked-purpose of the discussion: to directly explain why others should care about your findings. David Evans and Paul Gruba (2002, p.112) remind us that our minds continue to work on problems when we aren't thinking about them consciously. Make reference to similarities or differences in approach or findings. Claims should therefore be specific and precise, and the level of certainty must match the level of evidence. Are you working on a research project? Get help with all aspects of your assignment, from research to writing. The purpose of the results section of the thesis is to report the findings of your research. When to Write Dissertation Findings Chapter. Along with noting your work's limitations, it's helpful to also suggest follow-up studies. Table 5 shows the most common modes of computer infection in Australian businesses. Do your findings disprove your hypothesis? Evans, Gruba and Zobel, in their book “How to Write a Better Thesis”, describe the discussion chapter as the place where you: “… critically examine your findings in the light of the previous state of the subject as outlined in the background, and make judgments as to what has been learnt in your work” Fellow students, your adviser and your dissertation committee members can help provide that outside perspective, adds Yale clinical psychology professor Susan Nolen-Hoeksema, PhD, who teaches a course on writing in psychology. You're tired and the last thing you want to do is keep writing. The majority of studies indicate that for this age group, reducing fat intake contributes to lowering the risk of heart disease. There are generally accepted guidelines for presenting the results of statistical analyses of data about populations or groups of people, plants or animals. Swales, J. M., & Feak, C. B. The Discussion Section. "Limitations should be noted, but after you've discussed your positive results.". You can read more about reporting quantitative results in the next section, Reporting conventions. More detail can be provided in an appendix. contextually grounded (based on your data), viewed as a contribution by the relevant professional community of readers (they add something to the current body of research or theory). You also need to demonstrate that you understand the limitations of your research and the implications of your findings for policy and practice. Your discussion should begin with a cogent, one-paragraph summary of the study's key findings, but then go beyond that to put the findings into context, says Stephen Hinshaw, PhD, chair of the psychology department at the University of California, Berkeley. That means going back to the literature and grappling with what your findings mean, including how they fit in with previous work. It is also one of the most difficult parts to write, and sometimes the longest. As well as giving your own interpretations, make sure to relate your results back to the scholarly work that you surveyed in the literature review. Do your research findings support your initial hypothesis? Making lists works well for some people, but not for others. Why and how? Information contained in this section will highlight the finer details of writing up your findings and discussion sections. Eager to reach the finishing line, they miss the opportunity to fully explore their findings … 1. He used more restraint with his dissertation and his committee thought he wasn't positive enough. She discussed this change: One of the things I've changed is this idea of herding children through the Kinder day: they go from indoor play to snack time to the mat and so on. Reducing fat intake contributes to lowering the risk of heart disease. Use these groups and headings to make a plan of the points you want to make in your discussion. Remind the reader of the research question being addressed, or the hypothesis being tested. Maintained by: Research & Learning Online Webmaster Team. DON'T: End with it. Sounds simple, right? Example from a Doctor of Education thesis: In analysing the interview data, two themes emerged which will be discussed in this section. Are your findings very different from other studies? In these pages we consider these two activities separately, while recognising that in many kinds of thesis they will be integrated. Keep the following sequential points in mind as you organize and write the discussion section of your paper: Think of your discussion as an inverted pyramid. If you are discussing your findings in a separate chapter or section, limit your comments here to the specific results you have presented. Whatever the case, there should be two sections if they are in the same chapter; one for the findings […] There are many ways to write up both your findings and discussion. The first step is to clarify for yourself what you know now, as a result of your research. Yet, arguably the most difficult part of writing your dissertation awaits: your discussion, the place where you sew up the various threads of your research into a cohesive narrative. Now you have to convert that mass of material and ideas into a written text that will make sense to a reader, and do justice to your findings. Monash University is a registered higher education provider under the TEQSA Act 2011. reducing fat intake lowers the risk of heart disease. What else do your findings tell you, over and above what you initially set out to investigate? "The moral here is to try to find a balance where you set a tone that indeed celebrates interesting findings without too many leaps, while at the same time reporting limitations without being unnecessarily negative," says David. Reporting conventions differ according to whether the data involved is quantitative or qualitative. You've conducted your research, analyzed your findings and written your results. Help us improve your experience by  providing feedback  on this page. A component of summary of the findings is to provide a discussion for each of the findings, using anchor verbiage that justifies rather than distorts the intent of the findings. Indeed, every discussion should include a "humility" section that addresses the study's limitations, write Cone and Foster. In a thesis including publication, it will be the central section of an article. But don't dwell on the future at the expense of the present,says Scholl. The demographic data consisted of age, sex, years of experience and 2. 3. Freewriting on a topic means taking a fresh piece of paper or opening a new word-processor document and writing anything that comes into your head on that topic for a limited time. Use text to introduce tables and figures and guide the reader through key results, Point out differences and relationships, and provide information about them, Include negative results (then try to explain them in the Discussion section/chapter). 4.3 DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS 4.3.1 Demographic Relationships and Study Variables Although it was not part of the purpose of the study, this set of data was intended to describe demographic variables of the sample and to assess for any influence on the research findings. By the time readers get to your discussion, they're tired, adds Sackett. This is done within a research tradition where existing knowledge is always being modified in the light of new results. Chapter 5 Discussion of findings 106 PhD Degree in Tourism Management – Leslie, D (2008) from which data was gathered is small, the researcher is of the opinion that the results still provide meaningful findings and insights that could be generalised to normal … A key purpose of the discussion section is to move from specifics to general information. In other words, you tell your readers the story that has emerged from your findings. Sometimes the findings or results section of a dissertation comes in the same chapter as the main discussion. Limit your discussion to a handful of the most important points, as Sackett did on the advice of his adviser. Evans and Gruba suggest you try these techniques: 1. (p. 105), The ranges of metal atom concentrations for the two precipitate types were found to overlap (Table 6). Here you will be expected to demonstrate how your research findings answer the research questions established or test the hypothesis stated. Steven David, PhD, who successfully defended his dissertation in clinical geropsychology at the University of Southern California last May, found this point to be particularly difficult. This is why reporting data analysis is not enough; you need to: in order to make clear your contribution to knowledge in the field. Then, launch into "bigger picture" issues. In this chapter I shall try to show to what extent our texts conform to vernacular conventions of a well-told story of a saint, and in what ways they had to modify their originals to do so, attempting also to identify some of the individual characteristics of the three poems. For some fields of study, the presentation and discussion of findings follows established conventions; for others, the researcher’s argument determines the structure. Highlight the important trends and differences/comparisons. After that, the organisation will vary according to the kind of research being reported. Do all the headings relate to the research question(s)? How do your 'findings' shed light on these concepts and, through them, on the substantive topics you studied? Information for Indigenous Australians. The discussion should show how your findings fit with existing knowledge, what new insights they contribute, and what consequences they have for theory or practice. The discussion should show how your findings fit with existing knowledge, what new insights they contribute, and what consequences they have for theory or practice. The discussion should indicate whether \the results met the objectives and include the reasons for it. Sometimes a reduced location element is used which gives only the table or figure number in brackets after the highlighting statement. This can be done through the introductions to carefully-structured sections and subsections. This page deals with the central part of the thesis, where you present the data that forms the basis of your investigation, shaped by the way you have thought about it. Do your results agree with previous research? In your discussion you must draw together your research question and your own research results. In longer pieces of work, these chapters are usually separate. Use a single sentence for each item. Literature reviews play an important role in the discussion section of a manuscript. If so, why might this be? 2. Comments on figures and tables (data commentary) usually have the following elements: Instructions: Click on the highlighted data elements in the example below. In the discussion section, you can provide interpretations based on your observations. You will definitely find it helpful. A conclusion section provides a synopsis of work in which the results findings are mapped to the objectives. "I think that too many discussions make the mistake of ending with 'the future,'" he says. Is there anything there you want to develop further? So instead of simply summarizing your data and suggesting a few obvious follow-up studies, think about presenting your data in a novel way, showing how the work might resolve an existing controversy in the literature or explaining how it connects to an entirely different literature. Give each group a heading. Have you learnt anything? Every thesis writer has to present and discuss the results of their inquiry. The discussion section is a very important part of your dissertation or research paper. Lapsing into causal language when your data were correlational. Therefore it is important for you to investigate the conventions of your own discipline, by looking at journal articles and theses. You should always keep in mind the main goals when writing your Discussion chapter. the research methods and theoretical framework that have been outlined earlier in the thesis. For many kinds of research, the main work of interpretation cannot be done until most of the data has been collected and analysed. Day, R. A. Copyright © 2020 Monash University. 4. It seems that reducing fat intake lowers the risk of heart disease. knowledge you are sure of because you have reliable evidence for it, other knowledge you think is only within the realms of possibility. Reducing fat intake may lower the risk of heart disease. While the summary presents information, the discussion analyzes the data and explains to the reader what your results mean relative to the problem you stated in your introduction. It is what all of your hard-work of writing the hypothesis, collecting and designing the data, conducting the statistical analysis of graphs and preparing the summary sums up to. seem to provide evidence that Angela is growing professionally for two reasons. View our latest COVID-19 updates. Thanks for letting us know that this page . The key words are ‘analysis’ and ‘results’ which implies that you … Let’s accept this: Writing a paper is daunting, and sometimes the most difficult and thought-provoking part is writing the ‘discussion’ section. Individual data extracts can be connected back into this structure through a process of 'tell-show-tell'.Click on the highlighted text below to read the comments. DO: Provide context and explain why people should care. In the discussion of your findings you have an opportunity to develop the story you found in the data, making connections between the results of your analysis and existing theory and research. In fact, choosing what to include can be overwhelming, warns sixth-year Yale University social psychology graduate student Aaron Sackett. It is useful to remind yourself what the task of writing up research is all about: …the major task of writing [about our research] involves working out how to make contextually grounded theoretical points that are viewed as a contribution by the relevant professional community of readers. Use the same terms, academic writing style that was used throughout your research paper 3. Give them something clear, concise and interesting to read, and they're sure to appreciate it. As soon as you have gathered and analysed your data, you can start to write up the findings chapter of your dissertation paper, which is your chance to report the most notable findings of your research work and relate them to research hypothesis or research questions as set out in the introduction chapter of dissertation. The presentation and discussion of qualitative data are often combined. If so, what do they add to it? DO: Look toward the future. Think of your discussion and conclusion section as an inverted pyramid: start from the general aspects of your research and then focus on the specifics. Angela suggested that in her second year of teaching she had changed in that she was programming in a "more child oriented" way. DON'T: Simply rehash your results. In this Chapter, all the experimental results from the phenomenological experiments outlined in Section 5.2 are presented and examined in detail. Thesis Writing: 9 Tips on How to Write the Results and Discussion Regoniel, Patrick May 25, 2015 Education , Research 3 Comments Writing the results and discussion section could be one of the difficulties that you encounter when writing your first research manuscript. establish the connections between the patterns that emerge from your analysis and your research questions, relate those connections to the existing research and theory, the aims or research question(s) of the project, including any hypotheses that have been tested. Writing a Conclusion Section. This is writing to think. As a researcher, you are expected to distinguish carefully between: Therefore, very strong claims, like the one below, are rare in academic writing. But avoid beginning the discussion with a long list of study limitations, says Nolen-Hoeksema. Restating the results without interpretation or links to other research. Do the results conf… Reducing fat intake appears to lower the risk of heart disease. The discussion section therefore needs to review your findings in the context of the literature and the existing knowledge about the subject. First, the ability to identify changes in her program suggests to me that she has deeper pedagogical knowledge gained through critical reflection on her practice, and second, there is congruence between her expressed beliefs and the practice she describes. Composing Qualitative Research. (At this point, don't worry about whether they relate to your aims or research questions.). Last updated: Nov 2020. Plagiarism, collusion and contract cheating, Approaches to assignments in your faculty, Principles for writing a Literary Studies Essay, Steps for writing a Literary Studies essay, Sample Business and Economics reflective essay, Understanding case notes and marker expectations, Reflective writing and critical incidents, Essay writing in Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Science, Reflective practice in Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, most common modes of computer infection in Australian businesses, home disks are the most frequent source of infection, the wastewaters from plants A and B and of similar composition, their work with children was clearly the area of their professional lives that was bringing the most satisfaction, although there were some challenges identified, the data reveal that they were all seeking ways to improve their pedagogy and achieving success in different ways. DO: Provide context and explain why people should care. (2015) Writing the discussion section: Describing the significance of the study findings, Journal of the Association of Physicians of India, 63, 11, pp. Bavdekar, S. B. Discussion Chapter: Main Goals and Writing Approaches. Sage Publications. Evans and Gruba (2002) offer some good advice: 'Include enough data in an appendix to show how you collected it, what form it took, and how you treated it in the process of condensing it for presentation in the results chapter.' The discussion can start with a summary of the aims and the results (write about x-fold or % changes rather than just repeating the results) You should try to explain the results, but only within the context of the study - integrating swags of theory into the discussion is not necessary and leads to … Demographic data that describe the sample are usually presented first. comments on whether the results are expected or unexpected. DON'T: Simply rehash your results. Failing to acknowledge limitations or dismissing them out of hand.Â. Call for Papers/Proposals/Nominations (7), © 2020 American Psychological Association. CHAPTER 4: FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION Themes that emerged from the ESL students’ focus groups were compared and contrasted to the themes generated from the in-depth individual interviews with the academics. This page and the next, on reporting and discussing your findings, deal with the core of the thesis. Use our assignment structures and samples to find out how your peers approach their work, and what lecturers expect of you. The purpose of a … The way you present the analysis and interpretation of your data sits within a wider thesis framework, which can itself be thought of as a story (adapted from Silverman, 2005, p. 242-43): The challenge for every thesis writer is to hold the detail of the data in focus without losing sight of the big picture of the research. COVID-19 resources for psychologists, health-care workers and the public. Research & Learning Online Webmaster Team, The difference between expected and obtained results. These themes were: the complexity and challenges of working with families and the professional satisfaction and challenges of program planning for children in preschool or childcare. The form of your chapters should be consistent with this story and its components. What, therefore, has become of your original research problem and the literature regarding it? This section should be written in the present tense. In all cases, though, the presentation should have a logical organisation that reflects: You are not simply describing the data. For others, the data already exists (in the form of archival documents or literary texts, for example), and the work of interpreting it begins much earlier in the research process.Whatever kind of research you are doing, there comes a moment when your head is full of ideas that have emerged from your analysis. University of Michigan Press, We acknowledge and pay respects to the Elders and Traditional Owners of the land on which our four Australian campuses stand. Your discussion should begin with a cogent, one-paragraph summary of the study's key findings, but then go beyond that to put the findings into context, says Stephen Hinshaw, PhD, chair of the psychology department at the University of California, Berkeley. This section is concerned with presenting the analysis of the results of data analysis. And while the discussion should put your research into context and tell a story, say experts, it should not overstate your conclusions. While the amount of discussion required in a thesis may vary according to discipline, all  disciplines expect some interpretation of the findings that makes these connections. Do the questions need refining? Organize the discussion from the general to the specific, linking your findings to the literature, then to … In practice, a combination of these methods is often used: Evans, D., & Gruba, P. (2002). 2. Why and how? gradually leads the reader to interpretations of the material and to more general implications of the results. Silverman, D. (2005). Do your results agree with previous research? Ask yourself these questions: 1. There are many methods used in academic writing to qualify a claim: .divTable{ display: table; width: 100%; } .divTableRow { display: table-row; } .divTableHeading { background-color: #EEE; display: table-header-group; } .divTableCell, .divTableHead { border: 0px solid #999999; display: table-cell; padding: 3px 10px; } .divTableHeading { background-color: #EEE; display: table-header-group; font-weight: bold; } .divTableFoot { background-color: #EEE; display: table-footer-group; font-weight: bold; } .divTableBody { display: table-row-group; }. Be guided by your research questions(s) and the nature of your data. You usually present the data you obtained in appropriate figures (diagrams, graphs, tables and photographs) and you then comment on this data. 40-42. "Many students reach this stage of their careers having been focused for several years on the 'trees,'" says Yale University cognitive psychology professor Brian Scholl, PhD. For example, a thesis in oral history and one in marketing may both use interview data that has been collected and analysed in similar ways, but the way the results of this analysis are presented will be very different because the questions they are trying to answer are different. "The point of a discussion, in my view, is to transcend 'just the facts,' and engage in productive speculation," he says. Write about your data for 5 minutes. The next big step is to write the discussion. As can be seen in the table, home disks are the most frequent source of infection. The new data may be found in Appendix C. The principal goal of the vernacular adaptor of a Latin saint's life was to edify and instruct his audience. The results and discussion sections are one of the challenging sections to write. Related reading: The secret to writing the results and discussion section of a manuscript; 5 Differences between the results and discussion sections The data needs to be connected back through the layers of detail to the overarching research question it relates to. 3. In the discussion of your findings you have an opportunity to develop the story you found in the data, making connections between the results of your analysis and existing theory and research. (Adapted from Swales &  Feak, 2004, p. 138).