Invasive Species Identification Sheet - Purple Loosestrife Purple Loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria L.) herbaceous perennial with woody taproot that produces clusters of many stems 3'-10' tall; above-ground parts die back over Winter; dead stems may remain standing over Winter Hoshovsky (Editors). Stems are square and a plant may have more than 30 stems. Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources. California Department of Food and Agriculture. Very Invasive. Leaves: Simple, opposite or whorled, lanceolate to oblong, entire, sessile. The Arrival. It is also cultivated as an ornamental plant in gardens, and is particularly associated with damp, poorly drained locations such as marshes, bogs and watersides. Purple Loosestrife Lythrum salicaria, L. virgatum. gracilior Turcz. Spectacular when in full bloom, Purple Loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria) is a vigorous, upright perennial enjoying an extremely long bloom season from late spring to late summer. Purple loosestrife is a perennial invasive plant that was introduced to North America from Europe via seeds in ships’ ballast. Cooperative Extension. The section below contains highly relevant resources for this species, organized by source. While not a threat to most terrestrial crop systems, purple loosestrife has affected the production of wild hay and wild rice, primarily in mid-Western prairie pothole wetlands. Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources. Alberta Invasive Species Council (Canada). The highly invasive nature of purple loosestrife allows it to form dense, homogeneous stands that restrict native wetland plant species, including some federally endangered orchids, and reduce habitat for waterfowl. Or, to display all related content view all resources for Purple Loosestrife. It can quickly dominate a site and adapt to environmental changes. vulgare Ecological threat Prefers moist soils and shallow waters where it competes with native wetland plants. Invasive Species Program; Species; Plants; Purple Loosestrife; Purple Loosestrife. New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services. L. salicaria, an Old World native, is a highly invasive species of wetlands in North America, beginning to spread rapidly about 140 years after its accidental introduction around 1800. Purple loosestrife has square stems, which help to tell it apart from some of the look-alikes that grow in the same areas. The PRISM system is currently down. Lythrum Species: salicaria Family: Lythraceae Life Cycle: Perennial Recommended Propagation Strategy: Division Seed Stem Cutting Country Or Region Of Origin: Europe, Africa and Asia-Temperate Distribution: Naturalized and invasive in the USA Dimensions: Height: 2 ft. 0 in. National Invasive Species Information Center, Early Detection & Distribution Mapping System (EDDMapS) - Purple Loosestrife, Pest Tracker - Survey Status of Purple Loosestrife, Fact Sheet: Purple Loosestrife (Jan 2014) (PDF | 986 KB), Invasive Plants of California's Wildlands -, Invasive Plants of California's Wildlands, Invasive Plants of Ohio: Fact Sheet 4 - Purple Loosestrife (PDF | 319 KB), Southeast Exotic Pest Plant Council Invasive Plant Manual - Purple Loosestrife, Species of Concern Fact Sheet: Purple Loosestrife, Alaska Exotic Plants Information Clearinghouse (AKEPIC): Species Biography - Purple Loosestrife and European Wand Loosestrife (Feb 8, 2011) (PDF | 168 KB), Invasive Plant Atlas of the United States - Purple Loosestrife, New York Invasive Species Information - Purple Loosestrife, Plantwise Technical Factsheet - Purple Loosestrife (, The Quiet Invasion: A Guide to Invasive Species of the Galveston Bay Area - Purple Loosestrife, Exotic Species: Purple Loosestrife (2010), National Exotic Marine and Estuarine Species Information System (NEMESIS): Chesapeake Bay Introduced Species Database -, Spread, Impact, and Control of Purple Loosestrife (, Environmental Fact Sheet: Purple Loosestrife (2019) (PDF | 767 KB), Aquatic Invasive Species - Purple Loosestrife, Field Guide: Invasive - Purple Loosestrife, Invasive Plants in Pennsylvania: Purple Loosestrife (PDF | 128 KB), King County (Washington) Noxious Weed Control Program - Purple Loosestrife, Maryland's Invasive and Exotic Species - Purple Loosestrife, Noxious Weed Species - Purple Loosestrife, Aquatic Invasive Species in the Chesapeake Bay - Purple Loosestrife (Sep 2013) (PDF | 115 KB), Invasive Plant Fact Sheet - Purple Loosestrife (Nov 2011) (PDF | 189 KB), Identification and Control of Purple Loosestrife, Introduced Species Summary Project - Purple loosestrife, Maine Invasive Plants Bulletin: Purple Loosestrife, Ohio Perennial & Biennial Weed Guide - Purple Loosestrife, Purple Loosestrife: What You Should Know, What You Can Do, Noxious Weed Information - Purple Loosestrife. The .gov means it’s official.Federal government websites always use a .gov or .mil domain. DOI. The flowers are showy and bright, and a number of cultivars have been selected for variation in flower colour, including: Lythrum salicaria is a serious invader of many types of wetlands, including wet meadows, prairie potholes, river and stream banks, lake shores, tidal and nontidal marshes, and ditches. It has gradually spread throughout much of the United Stat… Alaska Center for Conservation Science. It alters the structure and function of wetlands, clogs waterways and irrigation system, affects rice and other agricultural production, and reduces livestock forage quality. tomentosum (Mill.) Scientific Name: Lythrum salicaria L. Purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria L.) is a wetland perennial that forms large, monotypic stands throughout the temperate regions of the U.S. and Canada. Purple loosestrife's appearance is similar to fireweed and spirea and is sometimes found growing with … Width: 2 ft. 0 in. Lythrum salicaria L. var. GRIN-Global. Purple Loosestrife Lythrum salicaria is Naturalized in Texas and other States and is considered an invasive and noxious plant in Texas. Washington State Recreation and Conservation Office. - 4 ft. 0 in. Scientific names: L. salicaria var. Purple loosestrife (Lythrum Salicaria) is a perennial herb with bright magenta flowers of 5 to 7 petals during the majority of the summer months.Depending on environmental conditions, the herb can be 4 to 10 ft tall, and is always covered with a cotton or downy-like texture. Purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria), a beautiful but aggressive invader, arrived in eastern North America in the early 1800’s.Plants were brought to North America by settlers for their flower gardens, and seeds were present in the ballast holds of European ships that used soil to weigh down the vessels for stability on the ocean. The opposite or whorled leaves are dark-green, lance-shaped, sessile, 1.5-4 in. ARS. Spread, impact, and control of purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria) in North American wetlands. Invasive.org is a joint project of University of Georgia - Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health, USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA Forest Service, USDA Identification Technology Program, and USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture Water and Land Resources Division. Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory; DOI. University of Minnesota. Provides state, county, point and GIS data. The exotic invasive wetland plant purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria) is often considered to have negative impacts on native plant and animal species, but this is debated. Lythrum salicaria is listed as an exotic weed in Illinois (525 ILCS 10/3, 10/4) making it illegal to buy, sell or distribute plants, its seeds, or any part without a permit. (1987). USGS. Washington, DC: U.S. Dept. Extension Service. Purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria, L. virgatum and any combination thereof) is listed as a MDA Prohibited Noxious Weed (Control List) and a prohibited invasive species in Minnesota, which means it is unlawful (a misdemeanor) to possess, import, purchase, transport or introduce this species except under a permit for disposal, control, research or education. It can quickly form dense stands that completely dominate the area excluding native vegetation. USDA. LYSAT: Lythrum salicaria L. var. Noxious Weed Program. Fish & Wildlife Department. It grows 3-5 feet tall and in July and August bears beautiful tall spikes of star-shaped, rose-pink flowers. Horticulturists subsequently propagated it as an ornamental bedding plant. It varies in height from 4 - 10 feet. NOAA. Infestations are found in northern California and the San Francisco Bay Area, as well as along rivers in the southern Sierra. YouTube; Vermont Agency of Natural Resources. Purple Loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria) 1 Introduction Purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria L.) is an invasive, emergent, perennial plant, native to Europe and Asia. Smithsonian Environmental Research Center. The flowers are magenta, and they are found on tall, narrow spikes from July to October. See also: Exotic Species Program - Publications for more resources. Planting, sale, or other distribution without a permit is also prohibited in Indiana (312 IAC 14-24-12). Randall, and M.C. In winter months, dead brown flower stalks remain with old seed capsules visible on the tips. The https:// means all transmitted data is encrypted — in other words, any information or browsing history that you provide is transmitted securely. Washington, DC: U.S. Dept. Wetland and Aquatic Research Center. long (45 cm) held atop lance-shaped leaves. Exact date unknown; was established by the 1830s (, Through ships' ballast and as an ornamental (. Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health, King County - Purple lossestrife identification and control, Washington State Noxious Weed Control Board, Columbia Basin Cooperative Weed Management Area, Invasive Species Research, Control, and Policy Forums, Washington’s Urban Forest Pest Readiness Plan, Lake Roosevelt Invasive Mussel Rapid Response Exercise, Scotch Broom Ecology and Management Symposium, Steve Dewey, Utah State Univ., Bugwood.org, Norman Rees, USDA Agricultural Research Service, Bugwood.org, John Byrd, Mississippi State Univ., Bugwood.org. Texas Commission on Environmental Quality, Galveston Bay Estuary Program; Houston Advanced Research Center (HARC). Thank you for your patience as we work on getting it back online. State designated noxious weed; pink to purple flowers bloom July-September; leaves are heartshaped; height to 8 ft. Habitat. King County Department of Natural Resources (Washington). Loosestrife stands provide poor cover for waterfowl. U.S. National Plant Germplasm System - Lythrum salicaria Lythrum salicaria L. purple loosestrife Family: Lythraceae: large population: isolated clump: single plant: inflorescence: flowers: leaf: stem and leaves : Purple loosestrife is an invasive species of sunny wetlands. We … Google. Native primrose loosestrifes are yellow-flowered. Appearance. University of Alaska - Anchorage. of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. Description. Conservation Services Division. May grow up to 6 feet tall and 4-5 feet wide. Ohio State University. Purple loosestrife is a tall, perennial wetland plant with reddish-purple flowers, which may be found in sunny wetlands, wet meadows, river and stream banks, ponds edges, reservoirs, and ditches. Science of the American Southwest. NPS. It is native to Europe and Asia, and is responsible for a considerable amount of the degradation to wetlands throughout the United States. Washington State Noxious Weed Control Board. It was brought to North America in the early 1800s through a number of pathways including Purple loosestrife is a vigorous competitor and can crowd out other vegetation including native species. Washington Invasive Species Council. The opposite or whorled leaves are dark-green, lance-shaped, sessile, 1.5-4 inches long and round or heart-shaped at the base. DC. Appearance. Lythrum salicaria, commonly called purple loosestrife, is a clump-forming wetland perennial that is native to Europe and Asia. Scientific name: Lythrum salicaria What Is It? Lythrum salicaria is a serious invader of many types of wetlands, including wet meadows, prairie potholes, river and stream banks, lake shores, tidal and nontidal marshes, and ditches. Remove any plants from gardens to reduce seed sources and do not plant purple loosestrife. Native hyssop loosestrifes are shorter with white to rose petals. Description. It is native to Europe and Asia, and is responsible for a considerable amount of the degradation to wetlands […] The plant prefers moist soil with neutral to slightly acidic pH. Although many alien invasive plants have naturalized by escaping gardens, purple loosestrife basically began naturalizing on its own in rural areas. Find out how. Invasive Species - (Lythrum salicaria) Restricted in Michigan Purple Loosestrife is a perennial herb with a woody square stem covered in downy hair. In online book: Bossard, C.C., J.M. Minnesota Department of Natural Resources. It has been used as an astringent medicinal herb to treat diarrhea and dysentery; it is considered safe to use for all ages, including babies. - 4 ft. 0 in. Flowers: In long, crowded spikes, deep pink-purple, 5-7 petals, ½-¾" wide, mid-late summer in Maine. tomentosum; L. salicaria var. University of Maine. Purple loosestrife is a tall, perennial wetland plant with reddish-purple flowers, which may be found in sunny wetlands, wet meadows, river and stream banks, ponds edges, reservoirs, and ditches. Marine Invasions Research Lab. It features pink, purple or magenta flowers in dense spikes, up to 18 in. Ontario's Invading Species Awareness Program (Canada). Its long stalks of purple flowers are a common sight in wetlands. It was introduced to the east coast in the early 1800s, possibly as seeds in ship’s ballast or as an ornamental. of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. Thompson, D. Q. Purple loosestrife is listed as a Class B Noxious Weed in Washington, meaning it is designated for control in certain state regions. Maps can be downloaded and shared. Report a Sighting. It has leaves that are arranged in pairs or whorls and magenta flower spikes with 5 - 7 petals per flower that are present for most of the summer. LYSAV: Lythrum salicaria L. var. Lythrum virgatum 'Morden's Gleam' is a seedless, non-invasive Loosestrife. (New York) Columbia University. With its striking flowers, purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria) is a beautiful menace in wetland habitats. Lythrum salicaria (purple loosestrife) is a wetland herb (family Lythraceae) that invades scattered freshwater wetlands of northern and central California. University of Pennsylvania. Where purple loosestrife dominates, the invasive plant can decrease food resources available for bog turtles. As illustrated above, it can be very aggressive and it displaces native species. Yes, purple loosestrife has been documented throughout Washington. Wildlife and Heritage Service. Description: Robust, perennial herb, 4-6', base of mature plant feels woody. This aggressive invader replaces native vegetation, degrades wildlife habitat, and obstructs natural waterways. University of Georgia. 2000. Once established, however, L. salicaria can exist in a wide range of soil types. Lythrum salicaria is capable of invading a variety of wetland habitats, including marshes, river and stream banks, pond edges, lakes, road site ditches, and reservoirs. North Dakota State University. Has a shrub-like appearance, but dies back each year. Native to Eurasia, purple loosestrife ( Lythrum salicaria) now occurs in almost every state of the US. Before sharing sensitive information online, make sure you’re on a .gov or .mil site by inspecting your browser’s address (or “location”) bar. National Genetic Resources Program. Spirea, which has flowers arranged in clusters and oblong, alternate leaves. Purple loosestrife forms dense stands that outcompete native plants for space, light, and pollinators, and provide poor habitat for waterfowl. Smithsonian Institution. Now the highest concentrations of the plant occur … Lythrum salicaria. You can help prevent the spread of invasive species! Negative: On Sep 7, 2006, NJChickadee from Egg Harbor Township, NJ wrote: The problem with this beautiful plant is that it is very invasive, crowding out native plants. This site is also protected by an SSL (Secure Sockets Layer) certificate that’s been signed by the U.S. government. It can quickly form dense stands that completely dominate the area excluding native vegetation. Purple loosestrife can be identified by its oppositely arranged, vulgare DC. (3.8-10.2 cm) long and round or heart-shaped at the base. DOC. The Pennsylvania Flora Project of Morris Arboretum. Center for Environmental Research and Conservation. A perennial from Europe, purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria)usually grows from 3-5 feet tall, but can reach a height of up to 7 feet. Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health. 2019 Status in Maine: Widespread. Maryland Department of Natural Resources. However, it will tolerate drier conditions. Leaves are opposite, hairy, and lance-shaped. Purple loosestrife is typically found invading lakeshores, wetlands, ponds, and wet pastures and ditches. It is believed to have been first introduced into the U.S. from seed contained in ships ballast, and it became established in certain estuaries in the northeastern states by the early 1800s. Fireweed, which has much larger flowers, alternate leaves, and does not grow in wetlands. Lythrum salicaria is a tall, multistemmed (30-50 per plant), perennial forb that can grow up to 10 ft. (3 m) in height.. Foliage. Colorado Department of Agriculture. Asynchronous flowering - bottom of spikes open first. Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center. Clarifying its influence would provide insight into appropriate management actions following invasion. Minnesota Sea Grant. Lythrum salicaria is a tall, multistemmed (30-50 per plant), perennial forb that can grow up to 5 feet in height.. Foliage. It is a very variable species with an ability to occupy numerous habitats and substrates with the exception of dry places. Spread, impact, and control of purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria) in North American wetlands. Small reddish-purple flowers grow in dense, showy spikes at the top of each stem. See also: Included on California's noxious weed list; see.