This literature has defined overconfidence in three distinct ways. We find that CEO overconfidence benefits acquirer bondholders. This article presents a review on how the optimism bias and overconfidence effects might affect the performance of an individual, and in particular, of a manager or a business owner. To measure this, we use CEOs’ longholding behavior as a proxy. Definition and manifestations. Then, various economic fields are presented where overconfidence was observed. Malmendier and Tate (2005) show that overconfident CEOs make inferior corporate investments; they are, Overconfidence is one of the most well-established behavioral biases in the literature (DeBondt and Thaler, 1995).Research has shown that overconfidence leads to excess market entry (Camerer and Lovallo, 1999), overinvestment in ability-complements and underinvestment in ability-substitutes (Royal and Tasoff, 2017), excessive investment in capital (Malmendier and Tate, … Economic Applications . 1. CEOs’ overconfidence is defined as their tendency to overvalue their firm’s future returns. Introduction. The desirability effect is when people overestimate the odds of something happening simply because the outcome is desirable. Overconfidence effect The so-called "Lake Wobegon effect", where everyone in a group claim to be above average, illustrates the: The oft-heard "I-knew-it-all-along" comment that many people make illustrates the: There is also empirical evidence of overconfidence’s effect on economic decisions. A search of the PsycInfo database using the word “overconfidence” yields 365 hits, 72% of which are empirical papers. This is sometimes referred to as “wishful thinking”, and is a type of overconfidence bias. Overconfidence is often appealed to in behavioral finance models (see Barberis and Thaler (2003) for a review of overconfidence in behavioral finance). This study explores the influence of chief executive officer (CEO) overconfidence on acquirers’ bondholder wealth effect during mergers from 1994 to 2014. Overconfidence can cause a person to experience problems because he may not prepare properly for a situation or may get into a dangerous situation that he is not equipped to handle. Rather, it is overplacement that accounts for the trading differences between the genders and for high overconfidence in men. "The problem with overconfidence is that it doesn't last – as soon as things go wrong, human nature takes over," says Aaron Klein, CEO of Riskalyze, an online risk analysis platform. In addition, overconfident acquirers are more likely to merge low return correlation targets rather than relative lower risk ones. Thus, policies aimed at protecting consumers from overconfidence may have little effect if competition makes them to engage in non-efficient contracts. Camerer and Lovallo tested the effect of overconfidence on business entry. #4 Desirability Effect. Adams and Adams (1961) blame the gap between rosy expectations for future success and actual performance on the overconfidence effect. + β 4 * CEOTenure + β 5 * VestedOptions + firm fixed effects + year fixed effects + ε. The first definition of overconfidence is the overestimation of one’s actual ability, performance, level of … Some examples of overconfidence include: A person who thinks his sense of direction is much better than it actually is. This is followed by reasons and solutions for the bias and it ends with a discussion about the overall effect of overconfidence on economic welfare for the individual and society. 2. Overconfidence can also reduce entrepreneurs' perceptions of risk associated with their firms (Kannadhasan et al., 2014). Our dependent variable is the probability of a CEO being overconfident. 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